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Charles Stuart Charles Stuart 1600 - 1649 Monarch who ruled with absolute power
Alec Guinness Alec Guinness 1914 - 2000 Actor of stage and screen
William Wallace William Wallace 1270 - 1305 Leader
Elizabeth Bowen Elizabeth Bowen 1899 - 1973 Novelist and short story writer
George Berkeley George Berkeley 1685 - 1753 Philosopher and scientist
Chatin Sarachi Chatin Sarachi 1903 - 1974 Painter and First Secretary of Albanian Embassy
Keith John Moon Keith John Moon 1946 - 1978 Drummer for the rock band
Yinka Craig Yinka Craig 1948 - 2008 Sports commentator and analyst
Abdul Hafeez Pirzada Abdul Hafeez Pirzada 1935 - 2015 Minister of Law and Finance
John Winston Ono Lennon John Winston Ono Lennon 1940 - 1980 Musician-peace activist
Jamil Bachir Jamil Bachir 1920 - 1977 Oud player and teacher
Ginger Baker Ginger Baker 1939 - 2019 Drummer of Cream,and Ginger Baker's Air Force
Roman Czerniawski Roman Czerniawski 1910 - 1985 Polish Air Force captain and Allied double agent
Thomas Paine Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809 Political pamphleteer and activist
Michael Gough Michael Gough 1916 - 2011 Actor
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I 1533 - 1603 Queen of England, Elizabethan era
Kenneth MacMillan Kenneth MacMillan 1929 - 1992 Ballet choreographer and director
John Hurt John Hurt 1940 - 2017 Actor and voice actor
John Peel John Peel 1939 - 2004 DJ and radio presenter
Johann Christian Bach Johann Christian Bach 1735 - 1782 Composer of the Classical era
Tayo Aderinokun Tayo Aderinokun 1955 - 2011 CEO of Guaranty Trust Bank
Yusuf Idris Yusuf Idris 1927 - 1991 Writer and playwright
William Wilberforce William Wilberforce 1759 - 1833 Political activist and leader
Elizabeth of York Elizabeth of York 1466 - 1503 Queen consort of England
Frances Ruth Shand Kydd Frances Ruth Shand Kydd 1936 - 2004 Aristocrat and socialite
Dev Anand Dev Anand 1923 - 2011 Actor, director and producer of Hindi cinema
Isabella of France Isabella of France 1295 - 1358 Queen consort of England and regent of England
Vichai Srivaddhanaprabha Vichai Srivaddhanaprabha 1958 - 2018 Businessman, Football Club Owner
Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister 1948 - 2010 Fuji music pioneer
Alex Ekwueme Alex Ekwueme 1932 - 2017 Vice president of Nigeria
Ashraf Marwan Ashraf Marwan 1944 - 2007 Spy for Egypt and Israel
Evelyn Emmet, Baroness Emmet of Amberley Evelyn Emmet, Baroness Emmet of Amberley 1899 - 1980 Member of Parliament for East Grinstead
Oswald Mosley Oswald Mosley 1896 - 1980 Leader of the British Union of Fascists
Albert Finney Albert Finney 1936 - 2019 Actor of stage and screen
David Lloyd George David Lloyd George 1863 - 1945 Prime Minister of the UK during First World War
Richard Steele Richard Steele 1672 - 1729 Essayist, dramatist, journalist
Henrik Kacser Henrik Kacser 1918 - 1995 Biochemist
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen 1792 - 1849 Queen consort of the United Kingdom and Hanover
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell 1599 - 1658 Leader of the Parliamentarian army
Mary I of England Mary I of England 1516 - 1558 Queen of England and Ireland
Mary of Guise Mary of Guise 1515 - 1560 Queen consort and regent of Scotland
Safa Khulusi Safa Khulusi 1917 - 1995 Scholar of modern Iraqi literature
Richard Harris Richard Harris 1930 - 2002 actor and singer
Richard William Wright Richard William Wright 1943 - 2008 Keyboardist and co-founder of Pink Floyd
Yehudi Menuhin Yehudi Menuhin 1916 - 1999 violinist and conductor
Mohamed Makiya Mohamed Makiya 1914 - 2015 Founder of Iraq's first department of architecture
Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten 1900 - 1979 Naval commander, last Viceroy of India
Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa 1840 - 1901 German Empress and Queen of Prussia
Margaret Morris Margaret Morris 1891 - 1980 Dancer and choreographer
John sans terre,king of England John sans terre,king of England 1167 - 1216 King of England
Maqbool Fida Husain Maqbool Fida Husain 1915 - 2011 Modernist painter and filmmaker
John Henry Bonham John Henry Bonham 1948 - 1980 Drummer of Led Zeppelin
Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith 1730 - 1774 Novelist, playwright, poet
Roddy McDowall Roddy McDowall 1928 - 1998 Actor in Planet of the Apes and Cleopatra
William the Conqueror William the Conqueror 1028 - 1087 King of England, Duke of Normandy,
Michael Marks Michael Marks 1859 - 1907 Co-founder of Marks & Spencer
Napoleon III Napoleon III 1808 - 1873 Emperor of the French
Graham Chapman Graham Chapman 1941 - 1989 Actor, comedian and writer
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes 1588 - 1679 Political philosopher, scientist, and historian
Olivia Newton-John Olivia Newton-John 1948 - 2022 Singer of pop and country songs
Puey Ungpakorn Puey Ungpakorn 1916 - 1999 Economist and Academic
Denis Johnston Denis Johnston 1901 - 1984 Playwright and war correspondent
Michael Gambon Michael Gambon 1940 - 2023 Stage and screen actor
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon 1900 - 2002 Queen
Christopher Robin Milne Christopher Robin Milne 1920 - 1996 Author and bookseller
Anton Dolin Anton Dolin 1904 - 1983 Ballet dancer and choreographer
Isambard Kingdom Brunel Isambard Kingdom Brunel 1806 - 1859 Mechanical and construction engineer
Helen McCrory Helen McCrory 1968 - 2021 Member of Peaky Blinders and Harry Potter films
Charles Babbage Charles Babbage 1791 - 1871 Originator of the concept a programmable computer
George Gordon Byron George Gordon Byron 1788 - 1824 Poet and laureate
Edward Albert Christian George Edward Albert Christian George 1894 - 1972 King of the United Kingdom
Naim Dangoor Naim Dangoor 1914 - 2015 Founder of The Exilarch's Foundation
Stanislaw Kot Stanislaw Kot 1885 - 1975 History of culture and Reformation in Poland
Ali Sastroamidjojo Ali Sastroamidjojo 1903 - 1975 Prime Minister of Indonesia
Oliver Reed Oliver Reed 1938 - 1999 Actor
Ibrahim Al-Masyhur Ibni Ibrahim Al-Masyhur Ibni 1873 - 1959 Sultan of Johor
Howard Walter Florey Howard Walter Florey 1898 - 1968 Pharmacologist and pathologist who isolated
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte 1769 - 1821
George VI George VI 1895 - 1952 King of the United Kingdom
Will Ashton Will Ashton 1881 - 1963 Painter and art critic
Saadi Youssef Saadi Youssef 1934 - 2021 Poet, journalist, publisher, translator
Christopher Gable Christopher Gable 1940 - 1998 Ballet dancer, choreographer and actor
George Elton Mayo George Elton Mayo 1880 - 1949 Psychologist and sociologist
Catherine Parr Catherine Parr 1512 - 1548 Queen consort of England and Ireland
Honor Blackman Honor Blackman 1925 - 2020 Actress and singer
Albert, Prince Consort Albert, Prince Consort 1819 - 1861 Husband of Queen Victoria
Ada Lovelace Ada Lovelace 1815 - 1852 Mathematician and writer
Syd Barrett Syd Barrett 1946 - 2006 Co-founder, singer, guitarist
Ion Ratiu Ion Ratiu 1917 - 2000 Politician
Fred Spofforth Fred Spofforth 1853 - 1926 Fast bowler
Leonid Pasternak Leonid Pasternak 1862 - 1945 Painter, illustrator
Bob Hoskins Bob Hoskins 1942 - 2014 Blues-rock singer, songwriter, and musician
Robert Baden-Powell Robert Baden-Powell 1857 - 1941 Founder of Scouting
Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria von Weber 1786 - 1826 Composer, pianist, critic
Henry VII Henry VII 1457 - 1509 King of England and Lord of Ireland
Rudolf Diesel Rudolf Diesel 1858 - 1913 Inventing the diesel engine
George Stephenson George Stephenson 1781 - 1848 Railroad locomotive inventor
Remi Oyo Remi Oyo 1952 - 2014 Journalist and presidential spokesperson
Thomas Stearns Eliot Thomas Stearns Eliot 1888 - 1965 Poet, essayist, publisher, playwright
Andrew Fisher Andrew Fisher 1856 - 1919 Prime minister of Australia, leader
Victoria Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven Victoria Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven 1863 - 1950 Royal family member and matriarch
Michal Bergson Michal Bergson 1820 - 1898 Composer and pianist
Maurice Gibb Maurice Gibb 1949 - 2003 Singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist
Ernest Henry Shackleton Ernest Henry Shackleton 1874 - 1922 Antarctic explorer
Thomas Edward Lawrence Thomas Edward Lawrence 1888 - 1935 Archaeologist and military officer
Peter Sellers Peter Sellers 1925 - 1980 Actor, comedian, singer, star of The Goon Show
Alfred Hitchcock Alfred Hitchcock 1899 - 1980 Film director, producer, and screenwriter
Eric Hobsbawm Eric Hobsbawm 1917 - 2012 Historian of industrial capitalism, socialism
Rosalind Elsie Franklin Rosalind Elsie Franklin 1920 - 1958 Chemist and x-ray crystallographer
Matila Ghyka Matila Ghyka 1881 - 1965 philosopher
Wladyslaw Sikorski Wladyslaw Sikorski 1881 - 1943 Prime minister of Poland
Sidney Nolan Sidney Nolan 1917 - 1992 Urban landscape painter
James Cook James Cook 1728 - 1779 Explorer, cartographer and naval officer
Thomas Patrick McKenna Thomas Patrick McKenna 1929 - 2011 Character actor
William Maxwell Aitken William Maxwell Aitken 1879 - 1964 Newspaper publisher and politician
Michael Faraday Michael Faraday 1791 - 1867 Physicist and chemist
Louis-Andre de Grimaldi Louis-Andre de Grimaldi 1736 - 1804 Bishop of Le Mans and Noyon, Peer of France
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan 1948 - 1997 Singer and master of Qawwali style
Charles John Huffam Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens 1812 - 1870 Novelist and social critic of the Victorian era
George V George V 1865 - 1936 King of the United Kingdom
Georgina Parkinson Georgina Parkinson 1938 - 2009 Ballet dancer and ballet mistress
Mustapha Karkouti Mustapha Karkouti 1943 - 2020 Journalist and media consultant
Chatichai Choonhavan Chatichai Choonhavan 1920 - 1998 Politician, Diplomat
Ljubo Sirc Ljubo Sirc 1920 - 2016 Economist
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare 1564 - 1616 Playwright, poet, actor
James Ussher James Ussher 1581 - 1656 Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland
Henry IV of England Henry IV of England 1367 - 1413 King of England and Lord of Ireland
Henry Christopher Mance Henry Christopher Mance 1840 - 1926 electrical engineer and inventor of the heliograph
Robert Palmer Robert Palmer 1949 - 2003 Singer, songwriter, record producer
Osmund of Salisbury Osmund of Salisbury 1030 - 1099 Bishop of Salisbury and Lord Chancellor of England
J. Paul Getty J. Paul Getty 1892 - 1976 Businessman
Henry VIII of England Henry VIII of England 1491 - 1547 King of England and head of the Church of England
Nathan Mayer Rothschild Nathan Mayer Rothschild 1777 - 1836 Founder of the English branch
Kerr Grant Kerr Grant 1908 - 1983 Physicist and electronics engineer
Geoffrey Chaucer Geoffrey Chaucer 1343 - 1400 Poet
Harold Macmillan Harold Macmillan 1894 - 1986 Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1957-1963)
Roger Altounyan Roger Altounyan 1922 - 1987 Pioneering the use of sodium cromoglycate
Birabongse Bhanudej Birabongse Bhanudej 1914 - 1985 Racing Driver
Elizabeth Taylor Elizabeth Taylor 1932 - 2011 movie star and AIDS activist
Terry Wogan Terry Wogan 1938 - 2016 Radio and TV presenter
Harold Wilson Harold Wilson 1916 - 1995 Labour Party leader and Prime Minister
Antony Tudor Antony Tudor 1908 - 1987 Ballet choreographer, teacher and dancer
Savitri Devi Savitri Devi 1905 - 1982 Proponent of Nazism and Hinduism
Margaret Hilda Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher 1925 - 2013 Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Henry VI Henry VI 1421 - 1471 King of England and disputed King of France
Walter Gotell Walter Gotell 1924 - 1997 James Bond films
Puey Ungphakorn Puey Ungphakorn 1916 - 1999 Economist, Rector
Peter Cushing Peter Cushing 1913 - 1994 Actor known for his roles in Hammer horror films
Mary Stuart Mary Stuart 1542 - 1587 Queen of Scotland and France
Max Muller Max Muller 1823 - 1900 Sanskrit scholar, philologist, orientalist
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Top 10 Died Influential People

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  • 1. William Shakespeare

    Died: 1616 A.D
    Slogan: The rest is silence.

    William Shakespeare was a renowned English poet, playwright, and actor born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. His birthday is most commonly celebrated on 23 April (see When was Shakespeare born ), which is also believed to be the date he died in 1616. Shakespeare was a prolific writer during the Elizabethan and Jacobean ages of British theatre (sometimes called the English Renaissance or the Early Modern Period). Shakespeare’s plays are perhaps his most enduring legacy, but they are not all he wrote. Shakespeare’s poems also remain popular to this day. Shakespeare's family were granted a coat of arms in 1596: it is thought that it was the influence of William Shakespeare that brought that about. It is likely that both William Shakespeare’s parents – John and Mary – were illiterate. John used a pair of glover’s compasses as his signature and Mary used a running horse. Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best works produced in these genres. He then wrote mainly tragedies until 1608, among them Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he wrote tragicomedies (also known as romances) and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. However, in 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that includes 36 of his plays. Its Preface was a prescient poem by Ben Jonson, a former rival of Shakespeare, that hailed Shakespeare with the now famous epithet: not of an age, but for all time.

  • 2. Sir Isaac Newton

    Died: 1727 A.D
    Slogan: I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.

    Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time. He was born on December 25, 1642, at Woolsthorpe Manor in Lincolnshire, England. Newton made significant contributions to the fields of physics and mathematics, including his laws of motion and the universal law of gravitation. His groundbreaking work laid the foundation for classical mechanics and revolutionized our understanding of the physical world. Newton's most famous work, "Principia Mathematica," published in 1687, presented his laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation. He passed away on March 20, 1727, and was laid to rest in Westminster Abbey in London, England. Newton's discoveries and theories continue to shape our understanding of the universe and have had a profound impact on scientific progress.Sir Isaac Newton was a brilliant physicist and mathematician who revolutionized our understanding of the universe with his laws of motion and universal gravitation. He was also an astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author who was described in his time as a natural philosopher. He was a key figure in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment that followed12 Some of his most notable discoveries and inventions are: The three laws of motion, which describe how objects move under the influence of forces. These laws are the basis of classical mechanics, which can explain many phenomena such as the motion of planets, projectiles, pendulums, and collisions12 The law of universal gravitation, which states that every mass attracts every other mass with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This law can account for the orbits of celestial bodies, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena12 The invention of calculus, a branch of mathematics that deals with functions, limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. Calculus is essential for studying the rates of change and areas under curves, as well as for solving many problems in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields. Newton developed calculus independently from German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who published his version earlier. The two men had a bitter dispute over the priority and credit for this invention12 The discovery of the nature of light and color, which he demonstrated by using a prism to split white light into its constituent colors. He also invented the reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors instead of lenses to produce clearer images. He wrote a book called Opticks, in which he explained his theories and experiments on light, color, diffraction, refraction, reflection, and polarization12 The study of alchemy, which was a pseudoscientific practice that aimed to transform base metals into gold and to discover the elixir of life. Newton was fascinated by alchemy and spent many years researching and experimenting with various substances and processes. He also wrote many manuscripts on alchemy, which were kept secret until after his death. Some historians believe that his exposure to mercury and other chemicals may have affected his health and mental stability1

  • 3. Elizabeth Alexandra Mary

    Died: 2022 A.D

    The Queen of the Kingdom of Great Britain and other Commonwealth territories

  • 4. Isambard Kingdom Brunel

    Died: 1859 A.D
    Slogan: I am opposed to the laying down of rules or conditions to be observed in the construction of bridge

    Isambard Kingdom Brunel was one of the most influential and innovative engineers of the 19th century. He was born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England on 9 April 1806, the only son of Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, a French engineer and inventor, and Sophia Kingdom, an English woman. He was educated by his father and learned drawing, geometry, and engineering principles from an early age. He also became fluent in French and English. At the age of 14, he was sent to France to study at the Lycée Henri-Quatre in Paris, where he excelled in mathematics and science. He returned to England in 1822 and joined his father in working on the Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel to run under a river. He became the resident engineer of the project in 1825 and was responsible for overseeing the construction and dealing with the frequent floods and accidents. He was seriously injured in 1828 when the tunnel was flooded and he was trapped for hours. He recovered and continued to work on the tunnel until it was completed in 1843. While working on the tunnel, Brunel also designed and built other engineering works, such as the Clifton Suspension Bridge over the Avon Gorge in Bristol, which was completed after his death, and the Bristol Docks, which improved the port facilities and trade. In 1833, he was appointed as the chief engineer of the Great Western Railway (GWR), which aimed to connect London and Bristol by rail. He designed and constructed the railway line, using a broad gauge of 7 feet (2.14 meters) instead of the standard gauge of 4 feet 8.5 inches (1.435 meters), which he believed would allow higher speeds and greater comfort. He also built many bridges, viaducts, and tunnels along the route, such as the Box Tunnel, the Maidenhead Railway Bridge, and the Royal Albert Bridge. He extended the GWR to South Wales and the West Country, and proposed to link it to North America by building steamships. Brunel was also a pioneer in marine engineering and shipbuilding. He designed and built three steamships that revolutionized naval transportation: the SS Great Western, the first purpose-built transatlantic steamship, which made its maiden voyage in 1838; the SS Great Britain, the first iron-hulled and propeller-driven steamship, which was launched in 1843 and was the largest ship in the world at the time; and the SS Great Eastern, the largest ship ever built until the 20th century, which was launched in 1858 and had a capacity of 4,000 passengers. Brunel also contributed to the Crimean War by designing the Renkioi Hospital, a prefabricated modular hospital that could be transported and assembled quickly. Brunel was a visionary and a perfectionist, who often faced challenges and criticisms from his contemporaries and the public. He was also a workaholic, who devoted his life to his engineering projects and neglected his health and family. He married Mary Elizabeth Horsley in 1836 and had three children, two of whom became engineers as well. He suffered from various illnesses and injuries throughout his life, and died of a stroke on 15 September 1859, at the age of 53, shortly after the launch of the Great Eastern. He was buried in the family vault at Kensal Green Cemetery in London. He was widely mourned and celebrated as one of the greatest engineers of his era and of all time. He left behind a legacy of engineering achievements that are still admired and used today.

  • 5. Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill

    Died: 1965 A.D
    Slogan: Never give in.

    Winston Churchill was one of the most influential figures of the 20th century. He was born into a noble family and had a privileged upbringing. He joined the British Army as a young man and served in India, Sudan, and South Africa. He also pursued a career in journalism and writing, becoming a prolific author of books and articles. He entered politics in 1900 as a Conservative member of parliament, but later switched to the Liberal Party. He held various cabinet positions, including First Lord of the Admiralty, Home Secretary, and Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was a vocal critic of appeasement and warned of the threat of Nazi Germany. In 1940, he became Prime Minister and led Britain through the darkest days of World War II. He formed a close alliance with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin and played a key role in shaping the post-war world order. He was also a gifted orator and inspired millions with his speeches. He coined the term “Iron Curtain” to describe the division of Europe after the war. He lost the 1945 election but returned to power in 1951. He suffered a stroke in 1953 but continued to serve until 1955. He remained active in public life until his death in 1965 at the age of 90. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his writings and speeches. He was also granted honorary citizenship of the United States by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest leaders of all time and a symbol of courage and resilience.123

  • 6. Elizabeth I

    Died: 1603 A.D
    Slogan: I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king.

    Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Elizabeth was the last monarch of the House of Tudor and is sometimes referred to as the "Virgin Queen". Elizabeth was the only surviving daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed when Elizabeth was two years old. Anne's marriage to Henry was annulled, and Elizabeth declared illegitimate. Henry restored her to the line of succession when she was ten, via the Third Succession Act 1543. After Henry's death in 1547, Elizabeth's younger half-brother Edward VI ruled until his own death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to a Protestant cousin, Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, the Catholic Mary and the younger Elizabeth, in spite of statutes to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside within weeks of his death and Mary became queen, deposing and executing Jane. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. Upon her half-sister's death in 1558, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel.[b] She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, whom she created Baron Burghley. One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the supreme governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir; however, despite numerous courtships, she never did. She was eventually succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots; this laid the foundation for the Kingdom of Great Britain. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and siblings had been.[3] One of her mottoes was video et taceo ("I see and keep silent"). In religion, she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570, which in theory released English Catholics from allegiance to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service, run by Francis Walsingham. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of France and Spain. She half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, and Ireland. By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. As she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult of personality grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day. Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era. The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, the prowess of English maritime adventurers, such as Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh, and for the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her fair share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer ("Gloriana") and a dogged survivor ("Good Queen Bess") in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. After the short, disastrous reigns of her siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped to forge a sense of national identity

  • 7. John Winston Ono Lennon

    Died: 1980 A.D
    Slogan: You may say I’m a dreamer, but I’m not the only one.

    John Lennon was one of the most influential and iconic figures of the 20th century. He rose to fame as a co-leader, co-songwriter, and co-vocalist of the Beatles, the most successful and popular band in the history of music. He also had a successful solo career, producing albums such as Imagine, Plastic Ono Band, and Double Fantasy. He was known for his experimental and innovative style, blending rock, pop, folk, and avant-garde elements. He also used his music as a platform for social and political activism, advocating for peace, human rights, and anti-war causes. He collaborated with his second wife, Yoko Ono, on many artistic and musical projects, as well as public demonstrations such as the Bed-Ins for Peace. He was a controversial figure, often criticized for his views on religion, drugs, and politics. He was also a devoted father to his two sons, Julian and Sean, whom he loved dearly. He was tragically murdered by a deranged fan, Mark David Chapman, on December 8, 1980, outside his apartment building in New York City. He was 40 years old. His death shocked and saddened millions of people around the world, who mourned the loss of a great artist and a visionary leader. His legacy lives on through his music, his writings, his drawings, and his influence on generations of artists and activists. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest singers and songwriters of all time, and one of the most important figures of the 20th century.

  • 8. Guy Fawkes

    Died: 1606 A.D
    Slogan: Remember, remember the fifth of November

    Guy Fawkes was a member of a group of English Catholics who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne. The plot involved blowing up the House of Lords during the opening of Parliament on November 5, 1605. Fawkes was in charge of guarding the barrels of gunpowder that were placed in the cellar of the Parliament building. However, he was arrested on the night of November 4, after an anonymous letter tipped off the authorities. Fawkes was tortured and confessed to the plot, implicating his co-conspirators. He was tried and convicted of treason and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered. On the day of his execution, January 31, 1606, he jumped from the scaffold and broke his neck, avoiding the gruesome fate. His body was still mutilated and his remains were dispersed to different parts of the country. Fawkes became a symbol of the Gunpowder Plot, which is commemorated every year on November 5, also known as Guy Fawkes Day or Bonfire Night. On this day, people light bonfires and fireworks, and burn effigies of Fawkes, also known as “guys”. Fawkes is also associated with the mask of his face, which has become a popular icon of protest movements, such as Anonymous and Occupy.

  • 9. Charles Robert Darwin

    Died: 1882 A.D
    Slogan: There is grandeur in this view of life

    Charles Robert Darwin was a British naturalist, geologist and biologist, widely known for his contributions to evolutionary biology. He was born on 12 February 1809 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, the fifth child of Robert Darwin, a wealthy doctor and financier, and Susannah Wedgwood, the daughter of the famous potter Josiah Wedgwood. He had six siblings, three of whom died in childhood. Darwin developed an early interest in natural history and collected specimens from his father’s garden and nearby fields. He attended Shrewsbury School and then Edinburgh University, where he studied medicine but found it boring and gruesome. He then went to Christ’s College, Cambridge, where he intended to become a clergyman but was more fascinated by botany and geology. He became friends with John Stevens Henslow, a professor of botany, who recommended him for a position as a naturalist on HMS Beagle, a survey ship that was about to embark on a five-year voyage around the world. The voyage of the Beagle proved to be a turning point in Darwin’s life and career. He collected thousands of specimens of plants, animals and fossils from various regions and islands, and observed the diversity and adaptation of life forms to different environments. He also read books on geology, such as Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology, which influenced his views on the gradual and uniform change of the earth’s surface over long periods of time. He began to formulate his own ideas on the origin and variation of species, which he later called natural selection. After returning from the voyage in 1836, Darwin settled in London and married his cousin Emma Wedgwood in 1839. They moved to Down House in Kent, where they raised ten children. Darwin devoted himself to studying and writing about his findings from the voyage and other topics in natural history. He published several books and papers, such as The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1838-1843), The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs (1842), The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects (1862), The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication (1868), The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). However, his most famous and influential work was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1859), which presented his theory of evolution by natural selection as an explanation for the diversity and adaptation of life on earth. He wrote this book after receiving a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace, a naturalist who had independently arrived at a similar idea while working in Southeast Asia. Darwin and Wallace jointly presented their papers on natural selection to the Linnean Society of London in 1858, but Darwin’s book gave a more detailed and comprehensive account of his evidence and arguments. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was controversial at the time, as it challenged the prevailing views on the creation and fixity of species based on biblical accounts and natural theology. It also had implications for human origins and social issues such as race, class and morality. Darwin faced criticism and opposition from some religious authorities, scientists and public figures, but also received support and admiration from many others who recognised the significance and validity of his work. He continued to refine and expand his theory in his later publications and correspondence with other scientists. Darwin suffered from various health problems throughout his life, which he attributed to overwork and stress. He died of heart failure on 19 April 1882 at Down House, at the age of 73. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, near the grave of Sir Isaac Newton, as a mark of honour and respect for his contributions to science and humanity. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in human history and the father of modern evolutionary biology.

  • 10. Horatio Nelson

    Died: 1805 A.D
    Slogan: England expects that every man will do his duty

    Horatio Nelson was one of the most celebrated and influential naval heroes in British history. He rose from a humble background to become a vice admiral and a viscount, and he won several decisive battles against the French during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was known for his inspirational leadership, his tactical genius, and his personal courage. He was also notorious for his scandalous affair with Emma Hamilton, the wife of a British ambassador. Nelson was born in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, on 29 September 1758. He was the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and his wife Catherine. His mother, who died when he was nine years old, was a grandniece of Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. Nelson joined the navy at the age of 12, through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a high-ranking naval officer. He served in various ships and stations, and saw action in the West Indies, the Baltic, and Canada. He became a captain at the age of 20, in 1778. Nelson’s naval career took off during the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1793. He was given command of the 64-gun HMS Agamemnon, and served in the Mediterranean. He fought in several engagements off Toulon and Corsica, where he lost sight in his right eye after being wounded by debris. He also took part in diplomatic missions with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself at the Battle of Cape St Vincent, where he boarded two Spanish ships and captured them. Later that year, he led an unsuccessful attack on Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where he lost his right arm and was forced to return to England to recover. The following year, Nelson achieved his greatest victory at the Battle of the Nile, where he destroyed most of the French fleet anchored in Aboukir Bay, Egypt. This battle secured British control of the Mediterranean and cut off Napoleon’s army in Egypt. Nelson became a national hero and was made a baron by King George III. He also began his affair with Emma Hamilton, who was married to Sir William Hamilton, the British ambassador to Naples. Nelson and Emma had a daughter, Horatia, who was born in 1801. In 1801, Nelson was promoted to vice admiral and sent to the Baltic Sea to join a coalition against Denmark, Russia, Sweden, and Prussia. He commanded the British fleet at the Battle of Copenhagen, where he ignored a signal from his superior to disengage and continued to bombard the Danish ships until they surrendered. He was made a viscount for this victory and returned to England. In 1803, war broke out again between Britain and France. Nelson was given command of the blockade of Toulon, where the French and Spanish fleets were based. In 1805, he chased them across the Atlantic and back, but failed to bring them to battle. He finally intercepted them off Cape Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. He devised an innovative plan to attack them in two columns perpendicular to their line of battle. The Battle of Trafalgar was a crushing defeat for the Franco-Spanish fleet, which lost 22 ships without losing a single British vessel. It also ensured British naval supremacy for the rest of the war. However, Nelson paid a high price for his victory. He was shot by a French sniper while pacing the quarterdeck of his flagship HMS Victory. The bullet struck him in the left shoulder and lodged in his spine, causing a fatal wound. He was carried below deck and died after three hours, having learned from his friend and flag captain Thomas Hardy that the battle was won. His last words were "Thank God I have done my duty". Nelson’s body was preserved in a cask of brandy and brought back to England. He was given a state funeral and buried in St Paul’s Cathedral, where his tomb is still visited by admirers. Nelson’s death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain’s most heroic figures. His legacy is commemorated by numerous monuments, including Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square, London, and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh. His signal before the battle, "England expects that every man will do his duty", is often quoted and paraphrased. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest naval commanders in history.

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