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Cecile Aubry Cecile Aubry 1928 - 2010 Actress, author, television screenwriter
Maria Blanchard Maria Blanchard 1881 - 1932 Painter and pioneer of Cubism
Aaron Jean-Marie Lustiger Aaron Jean-Marie Lustiger 1926 - 2007 Archbishop of Paris
Le Thi Luu Le Thi Luu 1911 - 1988 Painter
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot Anne Robert Jacques Turgot 1727 - 1781 Comptroller general of finance under Louis XVI
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara 1896 - 1963 Poet, Essayist
Antoine Lavoisier Antoine Lavoisier 1743 - 1794 Chemist, biologist, economist
Palladius Palladius 365 - 457 Bishop of Ireland
Honore de Balzac Honore de Balzac 1799 - 1850 Novelist and playwright
Samuel Hahnemann Samuel Hahnemann 1755 - 1843 Founder of homeopathy
Maurice Chevalier Maurice Chevalier 1888 - 1972 French musical-comedy star and entertainer
Leon Dehon Leon Dehon 1843 - 1925 Founder of the Congregation of the Sacred Heart
Guy Gilbert Guy Gilbert 1935 - 2023 Priest and educator of troubled youth
Bao Dai Bao Dai 1913 - 1997 Emperor
Gilbert Becaud Gilbert Becaud 1927 - 2001 Singer, composer, pianist and actor
Edward Frederick Sorin Edward Frederick Sorin 1814 - 1893 Founder and first president of the University
Richard I of England Richard I of England 1157 - 1199 King of England and leader of the Third Crusade
Maurice Allais Maurice Allais 1911 - 2010 Nobel laureate in economics
Konstantin Somov Konstantin Somov 1869 - 1939 Russian and French painter
Eugen Ionescu Eugen Ionescu 1909 - 1994 Playwright
Alfred Dreyfus Alfred Dreyfus 1929 - 1978 Singer and actor
Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou 1113 - 1151 Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy
Emile Zola Emile Zola 1840 - 1902 Naturalist writer and Dreyfusard activist
Savitri Devi Savitri Devi 1905 - 1982 Proponent of Nazism and Hinduism
Segundo de Chomon Segundo de Chomon 1871 - 1929 Film director, cinematographer, screenwriter
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal 1623 - 1662 Mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher
Maurice Paul Krafft Maurice Paul Krafft 1946 - 1991 Volcanologist
Riad al-Turk Riad al-Turk 1930 - 2024 Syrian opposition leader
Agnes Arnauld Agnes Arnauld 1593 - 1671 Abbess of Port-Royal
Jean-Baptiste Say Jean-Baptiste Say 1767 - 1832 Political economy, Say's law, entrepreneurship
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque 1783 - 1840 Botanist and zoologist
Daniel Carasso Daniel Carasso 1905 - 2009 Founder of Danone and Dannon
Isaac Manuel Francisco Albeniz y Pascual Isaac Manuel Francisco Albeniz y Pascual 1860 - 1909 Spanish composer and pianist of the Post-Romantic
Felix of Valois Felix of Valois 1127 - 1212 Co-founder of the Trinitarian Order
Stephane Lupasco Stephane Lupasco 1900 - 1988 Philosopher
Jacques Offenbach Jacques Offenbach 1819 - 1880 Operetta pioneer
Ahmet Zogu Ahmet Zogu 1895 - 1961 First King of Albania (1928-1939)
John Baptist de La Salle John Baptist de La Salle 1651 - 1719 Founder of the Institute of Brothers of Christian
Alexandre Benois Alexandre Benois 1870 - 1960 Art critic and historian
Francois Reichenbach Francois Reichenbach 1921 - 1993 Film director, cinematographer, screenwriter
Enrique Granados Enrique Granados 1876 - 1916 Composer, pianist, conductor
Henri de Lubac Henri de Lubac 1896 - 1991 Theologian and priest
Virgil Ierunca Virgil Ierunca 1920 - 2006 Literary critic
Urbain Grandier Urbain Grandier 1590 - 1634 Priest and alleged sorcerer
Lily Pons Lily Pons 1898 - 1976 Opera singer and actress
Dom Joseph Pothier Dom Joseph Pothier 1835 - 1923 Liturgist and musicologist
Francis II of France Francis II of France 1544 - 1560 King of France and Scotland
Jules Gabriel Verne Jules Gabriel Verne 1828 - 1905 Writer of science fiction and adventure novels
Pierre de Berulle Pierre de Berulle 1575 - 1629 Founder of the French school of spirituality
Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard 1742 - 1822 Instructor of the deaf
Isidore Isou Isidore Isou 1925 - 2007 Poet, Artist
Alexei Harlamov Alexei Harlamov 1840 - 1925 Painter of portraits, genre scenes
Paul Goma Paul Goma 1935 - 2020 Writer and dissident
Antoine-Augustin Cournot Antoine-Augustin Cournot 1801 - 1877 Economist
Karl Bryullov Karl Bryullov 1799 - 1852 Painting portraits and historical scenes
Peter Chanel Peter Chanel 1803 - 1841 Catholic priest, missionary, and martyr
Prosper Gueranger Prosper Gueranger 1805 - 1875 Benedictine abbot and liturgist
Lilyan Chauvin Lilyan Chauvin 1925 - 2008 character actress, television host, director
Alfred Firmin Loisy Alfred Firmin Loisy 1857 - 1940 Biblical scholar and critic of traditional views
Mark Antokolski Mark Antokolski 1843 - 1902 Cityscapes and landscapes
Ansgar Ansgar 801 - 865 Missionary and archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen
Bjornstjerne Bjornson Bjornstjerne Bjornson 1832 - 1910 Writer, poet, playwright, lyricist
Louis Antoine de Noailles Louis Antoine de Noailles 1651 - 1729 Cardinal and archbishop of Paris
Prince George of Greece and Denmark Prince George of Greece and Denmark 1869 - 1957 High Commissioner of the Cretan State
Bernard Maris Bernard Maris 1946 - 2015 Economist, writer and journalist
Naim Kattan Naim Kattan 1928 - 2021 Novelist, essayist and critic
John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill 1806 - 1873 Utilitarianism, liberalism, political economy
Marie-Joseph Lagrange Marie-Joseph Lagrange 1855 - 1938 Theologian and founder of the École Biblique
Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1800 - 1831 Duchess consort of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Louis IX Louis IX 1214 - 1270 King of France and Crusader
Edme Mariotte Edme Mariotte 1620 - 1684 Experimental physics, pressure law
Anne of Brittany Anne of Brittany 1477 - 1514 Duchess of Brittany and Queen of France
Jean Gabin Jean Gabin 1904 - 1976 Actor and singer
Georges Guetary Georges Guetary 1915 - 1997 Singer, dancer, cabaret performer and film actor
Louis II, Cardinal of Guise Louis II, Cardinal of Guise 1555 - 1588 Cardinal and Archbishop of Reims
Margaret of Provence Margaret of Provence 1221 - 1295 Queen of France, wife of Louis IX
Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan 1950 - 2020 Diplomat
Elisabeth of Romania Elisabeth of Romania 1894 - 1956 Queen Consort
Marcel Proust Marcel Proust 1871 - 1922 Novelist and critic
Sassoon Eskell Sassoon Eskell 1860 - 1932 Deputy for the Iraqi Parliament
Hugh of Saint-Cher Hugh of Saint-Cher 1200 - 1263 Cardinal and biblical commentator
France Gall France Gall 1947 - 2018 Yé-yé singer and Eurovision winner
Duong Quynh Hoa Duong Quynh Hoa 1930 - 2006 Health Minister
Aziz Sedky Aziz Sedky 1920 - 2008 Prime Minister of Egypt
Petru Dumitriu Petru Dumitriu 1924 - 2002 Novelist
Felix Dupanloup Felix Dupanloup 1802 - 1878 Bishop of Orléans, leader of Liberal Catholicism
Prince Ali Khan Prince Ali Khan 1911 - 1960 Racehorse owner and diplomat
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate 1652 - 1722 Correspondent and memoirist
Kim Lefevre Kim Lefevre 1935 - 2021 Writer, Translator
George V of Hanover George V of Hanover 1819 - 1878 King of Hanover
Marthe Bibesco Marthe Bibesco 1886 - 1973 Writer
Marquis de Lafayette Marquis de Lafayette 1757 - 1834 Military leader and politician
Marcel Lefebvre Marcel Lefebvre 1905 - 1991 Catholic archbishop
Anatoly Lunacharsky Anatoly Lunacharsky 1875 - 1933 First Soviet People's Commissar of Education
Niccolo Paganini Niccolo Paganini 1782 - 1840 Violinist
Olga Boznanska Olga Boznanska 1865 - 1940 Painter
Johnny Hallyday Johnny Hallyday 1943 - 2017 Singer-songwriter and actor
Olivia de Havilland Olivia de Havilland 1916 - 2020 Actress of Hollywood’s Golden Age
Maria Kwasniewska Maria Kwasniewska 1867 - 1934 Nobel laureate in physics and chemistry
Francois Fenelon Francois Fenelon 1651 - 1715 Archbishop of Cambrai, author of The Adventures
Gheorghe Bibescu Gheorghe Bibescu 1804 - 1873 Prince
Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix 1682 - 1761 Jesuit priest, traveller, and historian France
Marie Salome Skudofska Curie Marie Salome Skudofska Curie 1867 - 1934 Physicist chemist
Maurice Ravel Maurice Ravel 1875 - 1937 Composer and pianist
Elvira Popescu Elvira Popescu 1894 - 1993 Actress
Pope Sylvester II Pope Sylvester II 946 - 1003 Pope and scholar of mathematics and astronomy
Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince 1841 - 1890 Inventor of an early motion-picture camera
Henri de Saint-Simon Henri de Saint-Simon 1760 - 1825 Social reformer and founder of Christian socialism
Bulat Okudzhava Bulat Okudzhava 1924 - 1997 Author song singer-songwriter
Emmanuelle Arsan Emmanuelle Arsan 1932 - 2005 Writer, Actress
Georges-Hilaire Dupont Georges-Hilaire Dupont 1919 - 2020 Bishop of Pala in Chad
Max Ernst Max Ernst 1891 - 1976 Painter, sculptor, poet
Mai Skaf Mai Skaf 1969 - 2018 Actress and activist
Charlemagne Charlemagne 747 - 814 Emperor of the Romans and King of the Franks
Wassily Kandinsky Wassily Kandinsky 1866 - 1944 Painter of abstract art
Jean de Brebeuf Jean de Brebeuf 1593 - 1649 Jesuit priest and missionary to the Huron people
Ulfat Idlibi Ulfat Idlibi 1912 - 2007 Novelist
Oscar Wilde Oscar Wilde 1854 - 1900 Playwright
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1864 - 1901 Post-Impressionist painter
Kieron Moore Kieron Moore 1924 - 2007 Film and television actor
Osmund of Salisbury Osmund of Salisbury 1030 - 1099 Bishop of Salisbury and Lord Chancellor of England
Leon Walras Leon Walras 1834 - 1910 Mathematical economist and Georgist
Pierre Le Pesant, sieur de Boisguilbert Pierre Le Pesant, sieur de Boisguilbert 1646 - 1714 Economic and fiscal reformer
Lili Damita Lili Damita 1904 - 1994 actress and singer
Raoul Coutard Raoul Coutard 1924 - 2016 Cinematographer for French New Wave directors
Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp 1887 - 1968 Painter, sculptor, chess player, writer
Jean-Baptiste Henri-Dominique Lacordaire Jean-Baptiste Henri-Dominique Lacordaire 1802 - 1861 Preacher, theologian, political activist
Constantin Virgil Gheorghiu Constantin Virgil Gheorghiu 1916 - 1992 Writer
Charlemagne Charlemagne 747 - 814 Emperor of the Romans, King of the Franks
Francoise Frenkel Francoise Frenkel 1889 - 1975 Writer and bookseller
Ivan Bilibin Ivan Bilibin 1876 - 1942 Illustrations of Russian fairy tales
Francisco Goya Francisco Goya 1746 - 1828 Painter and printmaker
Andre Truong Trong Thi Andre Truong Trong Thi 1936 - 2005 Computer Engineer
Le Pho Le Pho 1907 - 2001 Painter
Louis III, Cardinal of Guise Louis III, Cardinal of Guise 1575 - 1621 Cardinal, Archbishop of Reims
Andre Coindre Andre Coindre 1787 - 1826 Founder of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart
Lasgush Poradeci Lasgush Poradeci 1899 - 1987 Poet and author
Mai Trung Thu Mai Trung Thu 1906 - 1980 Painter
Jacques-Paul Migne Jacques-Paul Migne 1800 - 1875 Publisher of Patrologia Latina
Maximilien Robespierre Maximilien Robespierre 1758 - 1794 Leader of the French Revolution and the Reign
Salah al-Din Bitar Salah al-Din Bitar 1912 - 1980 Politician
Sacha Distel Sacha Distel 1933 - 2004 Singer, guitarist, songwriter and actor
Alexandre Dumas Alexandre Dumas 1802 - 1870 Historical novels and adventure stories
Francis de Sales Francis de Sales 1567 - 1622 Bishop of Geneva and Doctor of the Church
Coco Chanel Coco Chanel 1883 - 1971 Fashion designer and founder of Chanel brand
Le Corbusier Le Corbusier 1887 - 1965
John McCrae John McCrae 1872 - 1918 Poet, Physician, Soldier
Germanus of Auxerre Germanus of Auxerre 378 - 445 Bishop of Autissiodorum and defender of orthodoxy
Louis Rene Edouard de Rohan Louis Rene Edouard de Rohan 1734 - 1803 Bishop of Strasbourg, Grand Almoner of France
Hugues Felicite Robert de Lamennais Hugues Felicite Robert de Lamennais 1782 - 1854 Catholic priest, philosopher
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Top 10 Died Influential People

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  • 1. Coco Chanel

    Died: 1971 A.D
    Slogan: A girl should be two things: classy and fabulous.

    Coco Chanel was a French fashion designer and businesswoman who revolutionized the style and aesthetics of women's clothing in the 20th century. She was born in a poorhouse in Saumur, France, and raised by nuns after her mother's death. She learned to sew at a young age and started her career as a milliner. She opened her first shop in Paris in 1910, selling hats and later expanding to clothing. She introduced simple, elegant, and comfortable designs that contrasted with the corseted and elaborate fashion of the time. She popularized the use of jersey fabric, tweed, and black color in women's clothing. She also created iconic accessories such as the quilted purse, costume jewelry, and the interlocked-CC monogram. She launched her first perfume, Chanel No. 5, in 1921, which became one of the most famous fragrances in the world. She also designed costumes for theater and cinema, collaborating with artists such as Pablo Picasso, Igor Stravinsky, and Jean Cocteau. She closed her fashion house during World War II and faced controversy for her involvement with a German officer. She returned to fashion in 1954, at the age of 71, and continued to create influential collections until her death in 1971. She is widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in fashion history and a symbol of modern, liberated, and independent womanhood.

  • 2. Napoleon Bonaparte

    Died: 1821 A.D
    Slogan:

  • 3. Victor Hugo

    Died: 1885 A.D
    Slogan: To love beauty is to see light.

    Victor Hugo was a renowned poet, novelist and playwright of the Romantic Movement in 19th century France. He is considered by many as one of the greatest and best-known French authors of all times. He was also a political statesman and human rights activist, although he is primarily remembered for his literary creations like poetry and novels. Hugo was born on 26 February 1802 in Besançon in Eastern France. His father was a general in Napoléon’s army, and much of his childhood was therefore spent amid the backdrop of Napoléon’s campaigns in Spain and in Italy. At the age of eleven, Hugo returned to live with his mother in Paris, where he became infatuated with books and literature. Hugo began his literary career as a poet, publishing his first collection of poems, Odes et poésies diverses, in 1822. He soon became a leader of the Romantic movement with his play Cromwell (1827) and drama Hernani (1830), which challenged the classical rules of theatre. He also wrote several novels that explored social issues and human passions, such as Notre-Dame de Paris (1831), also known as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, and Les Misérables (1862), which is considered one of the greatest novels of all time. Hugo was also involved in politics, serving as a deputy and a senator in the French parliament. He was a staunch supporter of republicanism and democracy, and opposed the monarchy and the dictatorship of Napoléon III. He was exiled from France from 1851 to 1870, living in Brussels, Jersey, and Guernsey. During his exile, he wrote some of his most famous works, such as Les Contemplations (1856), La Légende des siècles (1859), and Les Châtiments (1853), a collection of poems denouncing Napoléon III. Hugo returned to France in 1870 after the fall of the Second Empire. He continued to write and publish until his death on 22 May 1885. He was given a state funeral in the Panthéon of Paris, which was attended by over two million people. He is regarded as a national hero and a symbol of French culture.

  • 4. Louis XIV

    Died: 1715 A.D
    Slogan: Every time I appoint someone to a vacant position, I make a hundred unhappy and one ungrateful

    Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 at St Germain-en-Laye. He became king at the age of four on the death of his father, Louis XIII. His mother, Anne of Austria, and his chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin, ruled on his behalf until he came of age in 1661. He declared that he would rule as an absolute monarch, with the famous phrase "L'état, c'est moi" ("I am the state"). He consolidated his power by building a magnificent palace at Versailles, where he moved his court and government in 1682. He patronized the arts and culture, and employed famous artists such as Molière, Racine, Lully, Le Brun, and Le Nôtre. He also reformed the legal system with the Code Louis, which unified the laws of France and served as a model for other countries. He also expanded France's territory through a series of wars, such as the War of Devolution, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. He secured the Spanish throne for his grandson Philip V in 1714. However, his wars also drained France's resources and provoked resentment from other European powers. He also faced domestic opposition from the Huguenots (French Protestants), whom he persecuted and deprived of their rights with the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. He died on 1 September 1715, after a reign of 72 years, the longest in European history. He was succeeded by his great-grandson Louis XV.

  • 5. Charlemagne

    Died: 814 A.D
    Slogan: To have another language is to possess a second soul

    Charlemagne was a medieval ruler who unified most of Western Europe under his rule. He was the son of Pepin the Short, who was the first Carolingian king of the Franks. He inherited half of his father's kingdom in 768 and became sole ruler after his brother Carloman's death in 771. He expanded his domain by conquering the Lombards in Italy, the Saxons in Germany, the Avars in Hungary, and other peoples in Spain and Central Europe. He also defended his lands from the attacks of the Muslims, Slavs, Danes, and Magyars. He was a devout Christian who supported the church and promoted education and culture. He reformed the administration, law, coinage, and military of his empire. He also fostered a revival of art, architecture, literature, and learning known as the Carolingian Renaissance. In 800, he was crowned as the emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III in Rome. This act restored the concept of a unified Christian empire in Western Europe and established Charlemagne as the successor of the ancient Roman emperors. He was also recognized as the protector of the papacy and the leader of Christendom. His empire became known as the Holy Roman Empire after his death. Charlemagne died in 814 after a reign of 46 years. He was buried in his palace chapel in Aachen. He was succeeded by his son Louis the Pious, who divided the empire among his three sons in 843. Charlemagne's legacy was immense and lasting. He is regarded as one of the greatest rulers in history and as the father of Europe. He was canonized by some medieval popes and is venerated as a saint by some Christian churches. He is also a national hero and a cultural icon in many European countries.

  • 6. Charles de Gaulle

    Died: 1970 A.D
    Slogan: France has lost a battle! But France has not lost the war!

    Charles de Gaulle was a French soldier, writer, statesman, and architect of France’s Fifth Republic. He was born in Lille on 22 November 1890 and grew up in Paris, where his father was a teacher. He graduated from the military academy of Saint-Cyr in 1912 and served in World War I, where he was wounded and captured by the Germans. He escaped several times but was recaptured each time. After the war, he pursued a career in the army and became an expert on tank warfare. He also wrote several books on military strategy and history. In 1940, after the fall of France to Nazi Germany, he fled to London and broadcast a famous speech on the BBC, calling on the French people to resist the occupation and join him in exile. He formed the Free French Forces, which fought alongside the Allies in Africa, Europe, and Asia. He also established a provisional government in Algiers, which later moved to Paris after the liberation of France in 1944. He became the head of the provisional government until 1946, when he resigned over constitutional disagreements. He returned to politics in 1958, when France faced a crisis over the Algerian War. He was elected as the president of the newly created Fifth Republic, which gave him extensive powers. He granted independence to Algeria and other French colonies, pursued an independent foreign policy that distanced France from NATO and the United States, and developed France’s nuclear deterrent. He also initiated a series of social and economic reforms, such as the introduction of a new franc, the expansion of social security, and the promotion of regional development. He faced several challenges during his presidency, such as the student protests and workers’ strikes of May 1968, the assassination attempts by the OAS (a militant group opposed to Algerian independence), and the growing opposition from his former allies. He resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum on constitutional reform. He retired to his country home in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, where he died on 9 November 1970 from an aneurysm. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in French history and a symbol of national unity and resistance. His political ideology, known as Gaullism, has influenced many French politicians across the political spectrum. He is also celebrated for his role in World War II and his vision of a united Europe. He is buried in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, alongside his wife and daughter Anne, who had Down syndrome. His other two children, Philippe and Élisabeth, became prominent figures in French politics and culture.

  • 7. Claude Monet

    Died: 1926 A.D
    Slogan: Color is my day-long obsession, joy and torment.

    Claude Monet was a French painter who initiated, led, and unswervingly advocated for the Impressionist style. He is best known for his series of paintings of the same motif in different lights and seasons, such as haystacks, Rouen Cathedral, and water lilies. He was inspired by nature and sought to capture its beauty and essence with his brushstrokes. He was also influenced by Japanese art and culture, which he collected and displayed in his home in Giverny. He created a large garden there, where he planted various flowers and built a water-lily pond with a Japanese bridge. He painted many scenes of his garden, especially the water lilies, which became his signature subject. He experimented with color and light, creating vibrant and luminous paintings that expressed his impressions of the moment. He was a prolific and influential artist who paved the way for modernism and abstract art. He had many friends and admirers among his fellow artists, such as Renoir, Pissarro, Cézanne, Degas, and Sisley. He also received support from patrons like Gustave Caillebotte, Ernest Hoschedé, Georges Clemenceau, and Sergei Shchukin. He faced some financial difficulties and health problems in his life, but he never gave up his passion for painting. He died of lung cancer at the age of 86 and was buried in his beloved garden in Giverny.

  • 8. Joan of Arc

    Died: 1431 A.D
    Slogan: I am not afraid... I was born to do this.

    Joan of Arc was a peasant girl who believed that she had visions from God instructing her to help Charles VII of France to reclaim his throne from the English during the Hundred Years' War. She convinced Charles to let her lead a French army to the besieged city of Orléans, where she achieved a remarkable victory in 1429. She then escorted Charles to Reims, where he was crowned as the King of France. Joan continued to fight in several battles, but was captured by the Burgundians, allies of the English, in 1430. She was handed over to the English and put on trial for heresy and witchcraft by Bishop Pierre Cauchon. She was accused of blasphemy, cross-dressing, and acting on demonic visions. She was found guilty and burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, at the age of about 19. In 1456, a posthumous retrial declared her innocent and a martyr. She was canonized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church in 1920. Joan of Arc is regarded as a national heroine of France and a symbol of courage, faith, and patriotism.

  • 9. Clovis I

    Died: 511 A.D
    Slogan: The Franks have one God and him will we serve

    Clovis I was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of petty kings to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. Clovis is important in the historiography of France as "the first king of what would become France". He succeeded his father, Childeric I, as a king of Salian Franks in 481, and eventually came to rule an area extending from what is now the southern Netherlands to northern France, corresponding in Roman terms to Gallia Belgica (northern Gaul). At the Battle of Soissons (486) he established his military dominance of the rump state of the fragmenting Western Roman Empire which was then under the command of Syagrius. By the time of his death in either 511 or 513, Clovis had conquered several smaller Frankish kingdoms in the northeast of Gaul including some northern parts of what is now France. Clovis also conquered the Alemanni tribes in eastern Gaul, and the Visigothic kingdom of Aquitania in the southwest. These campaigns added significantly to Clovis's domains, and established his dynasty as a major political and military presence in western Europe. Clovis is also significant because of his conversion to Nicene Christianity in 496, largely at the behest of his wife, Clotilde, who would later be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508. The adoption by Clovis of Nicene Christianity (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes) led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples; to religious unification across what is now modern-day France, the Low Countries and Germany; three centuries later, to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome; and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great, to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire.

  • 10. Honore de Balzac

    Died: 1850 A.D
    Slogan: Behind every great fortune there is a crime

    Honoré de Balzac was a French literary artist who produced a vast number of novels and short stories collectively called La Comédie humaine (The Human Comedy). He helped to establish the traditional form of the novel and is generally considered to be one of the greatest novelists of all time. Balzac’s works offer a panorama of post-Napoleonic French life, especially the upper and middle classes. His realistic characters are complex, morally ambiguous and fully human. His writing influenced many famous writers, such as Charles Dickens, Marcel Proust, Gustave Flaubert, and Henry James. Balzac was born in Tours, France, in 1799. He was the second son of Bernard-François Balssa, a former peasant who became a civil servant, and Anne-Charlotte-Laure Sallambier, who came from a family of Parisian cloth merchants. Balzac had a troubled relationship with his parents, who sent him away to boarding school at an early age. He later studied law in Paris, but soon abandoned it to pursue a literary career. He wrote under various pseudonyms and experimented with different genres, such as drama, journalism, and criticism. He also tried to be a publisher, printer, businessman, and politician, but failed in all these endeavors. Balzac’s breakthrough came in 1831 with the publication of La Peau de chagrin (The Wild Ass's Skin), a novel that combined realism and fantasy. He then began to work on a series of interconnected novels that would form La Comédie humaine, which he divided into three sections: Etudes de moeurs (Studies of Manners), Etudes analytiques (Analytical Studies), and Etudes philosophiques (Philosophical Studies). Some of his most famous novels include Eugénie Grandet (1833), Le Père Goriot (1835), Illusions perdues (Lost Illusions, 1837–1843), and La Cousine Bette (Cousin Bette, 1846). Balzac’s novels depict the social, economic, political, and cultural changes that occurred in France after the French Revolution and the rise of capitalism. He explored themes such as ambition, greed, love, marriage, family, class, money, power, corruption, crime, and justice. He also created memorable characters from all walks of life, such as Rastignac, Vautrin, Goriot, Grandet, Bette, Nucingen, Rubempré, and many others. Balzac’s personal life was also full of drama and romance. He had many affairs with women of different social backgrounds and statuses. He was engaged to Madame de Berny, a married woman who was 22 years older than him. He also had a long-distance relationship with Ewelina Hańska (née Contessa Rzewuska), a Polish aristocrat who was married to a Russian count. They exchanged hundreds of letters over 15 years before they finally met in person in 1833. They married in March 1850 in Berdychiv (now Ukraine), after the death of Ewelina’s husband. Balzac suffered from health problems throughout his life due to his intense writing schedule and lifestyle. He often worked for 15 hours a day without rest or sleep. He consumed large amounts of coffee and other stimulants to keep himself awake and productive. He also spent lavishly on clothes, furniture, art, and books. He accumulated huge debts that he struggled to pay off. He died in Paris on August 18th 1850 at the age of 51 from heart failure. He was buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery, where his tombstone bears the inscription: He was a giant

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