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Abdullah Ansari Abdullah Ansari 1006 - 1088 Poet, mystic, scholar, commentator of the Quran
Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali 1058 - 1111 Theologian, jurist, philosopher, Sufi master
Cyrus the Great Cyrus the Great -600 - -530 founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first P
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Naser al-Din Shah Qajar 1831 - 1896 Shah of Iran
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi 865 - 925 Alchemist, discoverer of alcohol and sulfuric acid
Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni 973 - 1048 Scholar, polymath, astronomer, mathematician
Abdul Aziz al Hakim Abdul Aziz al Hakim 1953 - 2009 Leader of Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq
Mani Mani 216 - 274 Founder of Manichaeism
Amir Kabir - Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani Amir Kabir - Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani 1807 - 1852 Prime Minister of Iran and modernizer
Abu al-Mughith al-Husayn ibn Mansur al-Hallaj Abu al-Mughith al-Husayn ibn Mansur al-Hallaj 858 - 922 Mystic, poet, teacher of Sufism
Mulla Sadra Mulla Sadra 1571 - 1640 Founder of Transcendent Theosophy
Nader Shah Afshar Nader Shah Afshar 1688 - 1747 Founder of the Afsharid dynasty and ruler of Iran
Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjani Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjani 940 - 998 Innovator in spherical trigonometry
Shahab ud Din Mar ashi Najafi Shahab ud Din Mar ashi Najafi 1897 - 1990 Shia jurist and marja'
Naser Khosrow Naser Khosrow 1004 - 1088 Poet, mystic, traveler, philosopher
Hakim Abolghasem Ferdowsi Hakim Abolghasem Ferdowsi 940 - 1020 Epic poet and composer of Shahnameh
Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi 870 - 950 Philosopher, logician, musician, cosmologist
Parthamasiris Parthamasiris 50 - 114 King of Armenia
Ebn Sina Ebn Sina 980 - 1037 Peripatetic philosophy, medicine, Islamic theology
Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni 973 - 1048 Scholar, polymath, astronomer, mathematician
Jabir ibn Hayyan Jabir ibn Hayyan 721 - 815 Alchemist and philosopher
Mazdak Mazdak 216 - 274 Founder of Mazdakism, a religion of late antiquity
Psamtik III Psamtik III -567 - -525 Last pharaoh of the 26th dynasty of Egypt
Fariduddin Attar Fariduddin Attar 1145 - 1221 Sufi poet and mystic
Molana Jalal Uddin Rumi Molana Jalal Uddin Rumi 1207 - 1273 Sufi poetry, Hanafi, Maturidi theology
Saadi Shirazi Saadi Shirazi 1210 - 1291 Persian poet and prose writer
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi 1236 - 1311 Astronomy, mathematics, medicine, music theory
Azad Khan Afghan Azad Khan Afghan 1722 - 1781 Military Commander
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar Fath-Ali Shah Qajar 1769 - 1834 King of Iran
Omar Khayyam Omar Khayyam 1048 - 1131 Peripatetic philosophy, astronomy, alchemy, poetry
Ala al-Dawla Mirza Ala al-Dawla Mirza 1417 - 1460 Timurid Prince
Zoroaster Zoroaster -1000 - -551 Prophet and founder of Zoroastrianism
Baha al-Din Muhammad al-Amili Baha al-Din Muhammad al-Amili 1547 - 1621 Scholar, poet, philosopher, architect
Muhammad Anvari Muhammad Anvari 1126 - 1189 Poet, philosopher, alchemist, polymath
Nizami Ganjavi Nizami Ganjavi 1141 - 1209 Poet, mystic, traveler, philosopher
Ubayd Zakani Ubayd Zakani 1319 - 1369 Poet and satirist of the Mongol era
Rudaki Rudaki 858 - 940 The first major poet to write in New Persian
Hafez Hafez 1325 - 1390 One of the greatest Persian poets and mystics
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Top 10 Died Influential People

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  • 1. Hakim Abolghasem Ferdowsi

    Died: 1020 A.D
    Slogan: I suffered during these thirty years, but I have revived the Iranians with my poetry.

    Hakim Abolghasem Ferdowsi was born in 940 CE in a village near Tus, in the Khorasan region of Iran, which was then under the rule of the Samanid dynasty. He belonged to a wealthy family of dehqans, who were Iranian aristocrats and landowners that had preserved their status and culture after the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century. Ferdowsi was educated in Persian literature and history, as well as Arabic language and sciences. He married a woman from his own class and had a daughter with her. He devoted most of his adult life to composing his masterpiece, the Shahnameh (The Book of Kings), which is the national epic of Iran and one of the longest poems ever written by a single author. The Shahnameh is based on a prose work of the same name that was compiled in Ferdowsi's youth, which in turn was a translation of a Pahlavi (Middle Persian) work called Khvatay-namak, a history of the kings of Iran from mythical times to the Sassanid dynasty. Ferdowsi also added material from oral traditions, legends, and other sources to his poem, which covers more than 50,000 couplets and spans thousands of years of Iranian history and culture. Ferdowsi composed his poem for the Samanid princes of Khorasan, who were patrons of Persian literature and culture. However, during his lifetime, the Samanid dynasty was overthrown by the Ghaznavid Turks, who were less interested in Ferdowsi's work. Ferdowsi faced many hardships and disappointments in his life, such as the death of his son at a young age, the loss of his patrons and friends, the invasion of his homeland by foreign powers, and the neglect and betrayal of the rulers who commissioned his poem. He died in 1020 CE in Tus, in poverty and bitterness, but also with confidence in his lasting fame. He was buried in his own garden, but later a mausoleum was built over his grave by a Ghaznavid governor. His tomb became a revered site and a symbol of Iranian identity and pride. Ferdowsi is widely regarded as one of the greatest poets in world literature and one of the most influential figures in Iranian history and culture. His Shahnameh is a source of inspiration and identity for Iranians and other Persian-speaking peoples. It is also a valuable document of ancient Iranian myths, legends, history, language, religion, art, and values. Ferdowsi's style is characterized by its epic grandeur, lyrical beauty, moral wisdom, historical accuracy, and cultural richness. He is celebrated as a national hero and a guardian of Persian heritage by Iranians and other admirers around the world.

  • 2. Zoroaster

    Died: -551 A.D
    Slogan: Doing good to others is not a duty. It is a joy.

    Zoroaster was an ancient Iranian prophet and spiritual leader who founded the religion of Zoroastrianism, one of the world's oldest organized faiths. He is also known as Zarathustra, Zarathushtra, Zartosht, or Zardosht in different languages and traditions. He is regarded as one of the most influential figures in the history of world religions, as his teachings influenced later faiths such as Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. Zoroaster's life and date of birth are shrouded in mystery and legend. According to some sources, he was born in Ray, near present-day Tehran, Iran, while others place his birthplace in Airyanem Vaejah, a mythical land in eastern Iran. Some scholars suggest that he lived sometime between 1500 and 1000 BCE, while others date him to the 7th or 6th century BCE. He is said to have been a priest of the ancient Iranian religion who had a vision of Ahura Mazda, the supreme god of wisdom and truth, who appointed him to preach a new message of monotheism and ethical reform. Zoroaster's teachings are preserved in the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of Zoroastrianism, which include the Gathas, a collection of hymns composed by Zoroaster himself in the Old Avestan language. The Gathas express Zoroaster's vision of a cosmic struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu, the destructive spirit of evil and falsehood. Zoroaster taught that human beings have a free choice to support either side through their thoughts, words, and deeds. He also introduced the concepts of heaven and hell, judgment after death, resurrection, and the final restoration of the world. Zoroastrianism became the official state religion of the ancient Iranian empires, especially under the Achaemenids (550-330 BCE) and the Sassanids (224-651 CE), and spread to other regions such as Central Asia, India, and China. However, it declined after the Arab-Muslim conquest of Iran in the 7th century CE, which resulted in persecution and conversion of many Zoroastrians. Today, Zoroastrians are a small minority in Iran and India, where they are known as Parsis or Parsees. They also live in other countries such as Pakistan, USA, Canada, UK, Australia, and New Zealand. Zoroaster's legacy is evident in many aspects of culture and civilization. He is considered to be one of the first philosophers and prophets who advocated rationality, morality, social justice, environmental protection, and human dignity. He is also revered by various religious groups such as Baháʼís, Manichaeans, Mithraists, Ahmadiyyas, and Yazidis. His image and name have inspired many artists, writers, musicians, and thinkers throughout history.

  • 3. Cyrus the Great

    Died: -530 A.D
    Slogan: I am Cyrus who founded the Persian Empire.

    Cyrus the Great was a prominent Persian ruler who lived in the sixth century BC. He was the son of Cambyses I, the king of Anshan, a region in southwestern Iran, and Mandane, the daughter of Astyages, the king of Media. He inherited his father's throne in 559 BC and soon began to expand his domain by conquering neighboring lands. He defeated Astyages and united the Medes and the Persians under his rule. He then turned his attention to Lydia, Babylon, and other territories in Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. He created the largest empire the world had ever seen at that time, stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River. Cyrus was not only a great warrior but also a wise and benevolent ruler. He respected the customs and religions of the peoples he conquered and allowed them to keep their own laws and traditions. He freed the Jews from their captivity in Babylon and allowed them to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple. He issued a decree that is considered to be the first charter of human rights in history, proclaiming his respect for human dignity and justice. He also established a system of administration that divided his empire into provinces governed by satraps, or local governors, who were accountable to him. He built roads, canals, and postal services to facilitate communication and trade within his vast realm. Cyrus died in 530 BC while leading a campaign against the Massagetae, a nomadic tribe that lived beyond the Jaxartes River (present-day Syr Darya) in Central Asia. According to some sources, he was killed in battle by their queen Tomyris, who avenged the death of her son. According to others, he died peacefully after returning to his capital Pasargadae. He was buried in a simple but elegant tomb that still stands today in Pasargadae. He was succeeded by his son Cambyses II, who continued his father's conquests by invading Egypt. Cyrus is remembered as one of the greatest kings of all time, admired by both his own people and other nations. He is revered by Iranians as the father of their nation and by Jews as their liberator and benefactor. He is praised by Greek historians such as Herodotus and Xenophon for his achievements and virtues. He is also mentioned in the Bible as an anointed one of God who fulfilled his will. His legacy has inspired many leaders throughout history, from Alexander the Great to Thomas Jefferson.

  • 4. Hafez

    Died: 1390 A.D
    Slogan: Even after all this time the sun never says to the earth: You owe me.

    Hafez was a Persian poet and mystic who is widely regarded as one of the greatest lyric poets of all time. He was born in Shiraz, Iran, in the early 14th century and lived during a turbulent period of political and religious change. He received a classical religious education and became proficient in Arabic and Persian languages, as well as Islamic sciences. He also memorized the Quran at an early age and earned the title of Hafez, meaning 'the memorizer' or 'the keeper'. Hafez was influenced by Sufism, the mystical branch of Islam that seeks to attain union with God through love and devotion. He expressed his spiritual experiences and insights in his poetry, using the genre of ghazal, a form of lyric poem that consists of rhyming couplets with a common refrain. His poems are rich in imagery and symbolism, often using metaphors of wine, taverns, lovers, and nightingales to convey his mystical themes. His poems also reflect his criticism of hypocrisy and fanaticism among the religious and political elites of his time. Hafez's poetry is widely admired for its musicality, spontaneity, and beauty. His Divan, a collection of his poems, is considered a masterpiece of Persian literature and a source of inspiration for many poets and artists. His poems are also popular among ordinary Iranians, who recite them by heart and use them as proverbs and sayings. Hafez's poetry has been translated into many languages and has influenced many writers, such as Goethe, Emerson, Thoreau, Borges, and Garcia Lorca. Hafez died in Shiraz in 1390 or 1389 and was buried in a garden that he often mentioned in his poems. His tomb is a site of pilgrimage and celebration for his admirers.

  • 5. Molana Jalal Uddin Rumi

    Died: 1273 A.D
    Slogan: What you seek is seeking you.

    Molana Jalal Uddin Rumi was a 13th-century poet, Hanafi faqih, Islamic scholar, Maturidi theologian and Sufi mystic originally from Greater Khorasan in Greater Iran. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest poets and spiritual masters of all time. His works have influenced countless writers, artists, musicians and thinkers across cultures and centuries. He is also the founder of the Mevlevi order, also known as the Whirling Dervishes, who practice Sufism and perform sacred dances as a form of worship. Rumi was born in Balkh, a city that was then part of the Khwarezmian Empire and is now in Afghanistan. His father was a renowned scholar and preacher who fled from the Mongol invasion with his family and settled in Konya, in present-day Turkey. Rumi received a classical Islamic education and became a jurist and teacher. He was also initiated into Sufism by his father's friend Burhan al-Din Tirmidhi. Rumi's life changed dramatically when he met Shams al-Din Tabrizi, a wandering dervish who became his spiritual mentor and beloved friend. The two men had a profound and intense relationship that lasted for several years until Shams mysteriously disappeared. Rumi was devastated by the loss of Shams and expressed his grief and longing in his poetry. He also found solace in music and dance, which he used as a way of connecting with the divine. [^10^] ¹¹ Rumi wrote thousands of poems in Persian, Arabic and Turkish, as well as prose works such as the Masnavi (Spiritual Couplets), a six-volume epic that covers various topics of Islamic theology, philosophy and mysticism. His poetry is rich with imagery, symbolism, humor and wisdom. He often used stories and anecdotes from various sources, such as the Quran, the Hadith, the Bible, Greek mythology and folk tales. He also addressed his poems to Shams or to God as his beloved. His poetry is widely admired for its beauty, depth and universality. ¹²¹³ Rumi died in Konya on December 17, 1273 at the age of 66. He was buried next to his father in a mausoleum that later became a museum and a place of pilgrimage for his followers. His son Sultan Valad succeeded him as the leader of the Mevlevi order and continued his father's legacy. Rumi's influence has transcended national borders and ethnic divisions: Iranians, Turks, Afghans, Tajiks, Kurds, Greeks, Pashtuns and other Muslims have greatly appreciated his spiritual heritage for the past seven centuries. His poetry has also been translated into many languages and has inspired many people of different faiths and backgrounds around the world. ¹⁴

  • 6. Saadi Shirazi

    Died: 1291 A.D
    Slogan: Have patience. All things are difficult before they become easy.

    Saadi Shirazi was a prominent Persian poet and prose writer who lived in the 13th century. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest poets of the classical literary tradition, and one of the most influential figures in Persian culture and literature. He is also known for his profound social and moral insights, which are reflected in his works. Saadi was born in Shiraz, the capital of the Atabegs of Fars, a local dynasty that ruled over parts of southern Iran. He received a classical education in theology, law, literature, and Arabic at the Nizamiyya of Baghdad, one of the most prestigious institutions of Islamic learning at the time. He also studied under some of the famous Sufi masters of his era, such as Sheikh Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi and Sheikh Ruzbehan Baqli. Saadi traveled extensively throughout the Islamic world, visiting Anatolia, Syria, Egypt, Iraq, India, Central Asia, and other regions. He witnessed the Mongol invasions and the destruction of many cities and civilizations. He also experienced various hardships and dangers during his journeys, such as imprisonment, robbery, hunger, and illness. He wrote about his adventures and observations in his famous work Gulistan (The Rose Garden), a collection of stories and anecdotes interspersed with verses. Saadi also composed another masterpiece called Bustan (The Orchard), a book of poetry on various ethical and mystical topics. He also wrote many odes (qasidas), lyrics (ghazals), quatrains (rubaiyat), and other forms of poetry. His poems are known for their elegance, eloquence, wisdom, humor, and humanity. He used simple and clear language to convey profound meanings and messages. He also drew on various sources of inspiration, such as the Quran, the Hadith, the Persian classics, the Sufi tradition, and his own personal experiences. Saadi returned to Shiraz in his later years and spent his time teaching, writing, and worshipping. He died in either 1291 or 1292 CE at the age of 80 or 81. He was buried at a Khanqah (a Sufi lodge) where he had spent his last years. His tomb became a place of pilgrimage and reverence for many people. A mausoleum was built over his grave by Shams al-Din Juvayni, the vizier of Abaqa Khan, the Mongol ruler of Iran. The mausoleum was later renovated and expanded by various rulers and architects over the centuries. Saadi's works have been translated into many languages and have influenced many writers and thinkers in both the East and the West. His poems are often quoted in various contexts and occasions. His famous verse from Gulistan, The sons of Adam are limbs of each other Having been created of one essence, is inscribed on the entrance of the Hall of Nations at the United Nations building in New York. His book Bustan has been ranked as one of the 100 greatest books of all time by The Guardian.

  • 7. Mulla Sadra

    Died: 1640 A.D
    Slogan: Existence is nothing but a single reality that reveals itself in different modes.

    Mulla Sadra was a Persian Islamic philosopher, theologian, and mystic who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. He is considered the master of the Illuminationist school of philosophy, which he developed into a new system called Transcendent Theosophy. He synthesized the doctrines of various Islamic schools, such as Avicennism, Suhrawardism, Ibn Arabism, and Ash'arism, into a comprehensive and original framework based on the principles of existence, unity, causality, motion, and intuition. He also integrated rational inquiry, scriptural exegesis, and mystical experience into his philosophical method. He wrote more than fifty books, the most famous of which is his magnum opus, al-Asfar al-arba'a (The Four Journeys), which covers various topics in ontology, epistemology, cosmology, psychology, theology, and eschatology. He also wrote commentaries on the Qur'an and hadith, as well as treatises on ethics, politics, law, and education. He was a prominent figure in the Safavid intellectual and political circles, and had many students and followers who continued his legacy. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest philosophers in the history of Islam and one of the most influential thinkers in the Muslim world.

  • 8. Omar Khayyam

    Died: 1131 A.D
    Slogan: The world is divided into men who have wit and no religion and men who have religion and no wit.

    Omar Khayyam was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. He was born in Nishapur in 1048. His father was a governor of a royal estate and his mother was from a noble family. He showed exceptional intelligence and memory from an early age. He learned the Qur'an by heart at the age of ten and studied various sciences and philosophy under different teachers. He also mastered medicine by the age of sixteen and gained fame for curing the Samanid ruler Nuh ibn Mansur of a serious illness. He was granted access to the royal library, where he studied the works of ancient Greek philosophers, especially Aristotle. Omar Khayyam's life was marked by political turmoil and frequent travels. He served as a physician and a vizier for several rulers, but also faced imprisonment, persecution and exile. He wrote about 450 works on various topics, of which around 240 have survived. His most influential works are The Book of Healing (Kitab al-Shifa), a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia that covers logic, natural sciences, psychology, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music; and The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb), a medical encyclopedia that summarizes the medical knowledge of ancient Greek, Indian and Persian sources and presents Omar Khayyam's own contributions. The Canon of Medicine was a standard medical text in the Islamic world and Europe for centuries. Omar Khayyam was also a poet, a theologian and a mystic. He wrote several works on Islamic theology and metaphysics, such as The Book of Salvation (Al-Najat) and The Book of Directives and Remarks (Al-Isharat wa al-Tanbihat). He also composed poems in Arabic and Persian, some of which are autobiographical or express his philosophical and spiritual views. He was a follower of the Peripatetic school of philosophy, which was based on Aristotle's teachings. He developed his own system of logic, metaphysics and natural philosophy. He argued for the existence of God as the necessary being and the first cause of all things. He also discussed the nature of the soul, the relation between reason and revelation, the problem of evil and the afterlife. Omar Khayyam died in December 1131 in Nishapur, where he had accompanied his patron Ala al-Dawla, the Kakuyid ruler. He was buried in Nishapur and his tomb became a monument and a museum. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest philosophers and physicians in history. He is also known as Avicenna in Latin and in European languages. He has been called "the father of modern medicine", "the prince of physicians" and "the most famous scientist of Islam". His works have influenced many fields of knowledge, such as philosophy, medicine, mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, psychology, music and poetry.

  • 9. Mani

    Died: 274 A.D
    Slogan: The home we seek is in eternity; The Truth we seek is like a shoreless sea.

    Mani was an Iranian prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a religion that combined elements of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Gnosticism. He claimed to be the final messenger of God and the revealer of the true knowledge that would liberate the human soul from the bondage of matter. He wrote several books in Syriac and Middle Persian, some of which have survived in fragments or translations. He also created paintings and drawings to illustrate his teachings, which he called the "image of his wisdom". Mani was born in or near Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the capital of the Parthian Empire, in April 216 CE. His father, Pātik, was a member of a baptist sect called the Mughtasilah (the "Washers"), and his mother, Mariam, was related to the Parthian royal family. Mani received visions from an angel called the Twin, who instructed him to preach a new religion that would unify all previous revelations. He began his mission at the age of 24, after the death of his father. He traveled to India, where he encountered Buddhist teachings and gained followers. He returned to Persia and gained the favor of the Sasanian king Shapur I, who allowed him to spread his message throughout the empire. He also sent missionaries to other regions, such as Egypt, Syria, Armenia, Central Asia, and China. Mani's religion was based on a dualistic cosmology that divided reality into two opposing principles: light and darkness. The light represented the spiritual realm of God and his emanations, while the darkness represented the material realm of evil and chaos. According to Mani, in the beginning these two realms were separate, but they became mixed when the King of Darkness attacked the Realm of Light. The ensuing cosmic war resulted in the creation of the world and the human beings, who are composed of both light and darkness. Mani taught that human beings have a divine spark within them that can be liberated from the darkness through knowledge (gnosis) and ascetic practices. He also taught that human history is divided into three ages: the age of the Father (the time of Zoroaster), the age of the Son (the time of Jesus), and the age of the Holy Spirit (his own time). He believed that he was fulfilling the prophecies of both Zoroaster and Jesus, and that he was bringing about the final salvation of humanity. Mani's religion faced opposition from various religious groups, especially from the Zoroastrian priesthood, who saw him as a heretic and a threat to their authority. Under the reign of Bahram I, Mani was arrested and put on trial for his teachings. He was condemned to death and executed in Gundeshapur, either in 274 or 277 CE. His body was flayed and his skin was stuffed with straw and hung at the city gate as a warning to others. His followers preserved his memory as a martyr and a saint, and continued to practice his religion in various regions until it gradually declined and disappeared by the 14th century CE.

  • 10. Nader Shah Afshar

    Died: 1747 A.D
    Slogan: The world is a beautiful place to live in as long as you don't mind some people dying all the time

    "Nader Shah Afshar was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in history, who ruled as shah of Iran from 1736 to 1747. He was born into the Turkoman Afshar tribe, which had supplied military power to the Safavid dynasty since the time of Shah Ismail I. He rose to prominence during a period of chaos in Iran after a rebellion by the Hotaki Pashtuns had overthrown the weak Shah Soltan Hoseyn, while the arch-enemy of the Safavids, the Ottomans, as well as the Russians had seized Iranian territory for themselves. Nader reunited the Iranian realm and removed the invaders. He became so powerful that he decided to depose the last members of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Iran for over 200 years, and become Shah himself in 1736. His numerous campaigns created a great empire that, at its maximum extent, briefly encompassed what is now part of or includes Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Oman, and the Persian Gulf. He also invaded India and looted Delhi, bringing back immense treasures such as the Peacock Throne and the Koh-i-noor diamond. Nader idolized Genghis Khan and Timur, the previous conquerors from Central Asia. He imitated their military prowess and—especially later in his reign—their cruelty. He became increasingly paranoid and tyrannical, executing or blinding many of his generals and relatives. He also imposed heavy taxes on his subjects and persecuted religious minorities. His empire and the dynasty he founded quickly disintegrated after he was assassinated by some of his own troops in 1747."

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