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Errol Flynn Errol Flynn 1909 - 1959 known for his romantic swashbuckler roles
Donald George Bradman Donald George Bradman 1908 - 2001 Batsman and captain of the Australian cricket team
Albert Namatjira Albert Namatjira 1902 - 1959 Watercolour landscape painter
Will Ashton Will Ashton 1881 - 1963 Painter and art critic
Tony McMichael Tony McMichael 1942 - 2014 Professor in Neurodegenerative Disease
Rolf Harris Rolf Harris 1930 - 2023 Musician, painter, actor television personality
Dorothy Hill Dorothy Hill 1907 - 1997 Geologist, palaeontologist
Herbert Edward Badham Herbert Edward Badham 1899 - 1961 Realist painter and art teacher
Andrew Fisher Andrew Fisher 1856 - 1919 Prime minister of Australia, leader
Eleanor Dodson Eleanor Dodson 1928 - 2020 Crystallographer and developer
Robert Gordon Menzies Robert Gordon Menzies 1894 - 1978 Prime Minister of Australia and founder
Ruby Violet Payne-Scott Ruby Violet Payne-Scott 1912 - 1981 Radio astronomer and radio physicist
Joyce Allan Joyce Allan 1896 - 1966 Conchologist, museum curator
Rod Marsh Rod Marsh 1947 - 2022 Wicketkeeper
Ruth Cracknell Ruth Cracknell 1925 - 2002 comic actress and comedienne
Bob Christo Bob Christo 1938 - 2011 Actor in Hindi films
Noel Tovey Noel Tovey 1934 - 2019 Dancer, actor, mentor, director
Ernest Buckmaster Ernest Buckmaster 1897 - 1968 Painter and art teacher
Lew Hoad Lew Hoad 1934 - 1994 tennis player
Ned Kelly Ned Kelly 1854 - 1880 Bushranger, outlaw, gang leader and convicted
Jack Charles Jack Charles 1943 - 2022 Actor, musician, activist, Aboriginal elder
Paul Gregory Green Paul Gregory Green 1973 - 2022 Rugby league player and coach
Bill Gammage Bill Gammage 1945 - 2019 Historian and author of The Biggest Estate
Howard John Arkley Howard John Arkley 1951 - 1999 Graphic designer and artist
Harold Holt Harold Holt 1908 - 1967 Prime Minister of Australia and lawyer
Frank Fenner Frank Fenner 1914 - 2010 Virology
James Ashton James Ashton 1881 - 1963 Painter and art critic
Dame Nellie Melba Dame Nellie Melba 1861 - 1931 operatic lyric coloratura soprano
Geoffrey Edelsten Geoffrey Edelsten 1943 - 2021 Founder of Allied Medical Group and former
Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum 1943 - 2006 first and third prime minister of the United Arab
Douglas Shenton Annand Douglas Shenton Annand 1903 - 1976 Graphic designer and artist
Anita Aarons Anita Aarons 1912 - 2000 Artist, jeweller, teacher, critic
Norman Brookes Norman Brookes 1877 - 1968 Tennis player
Ruby Rich Ruby Rich 1888 - 1988 journalist, editor, and feminist
Elizabeth Kenny Elizabeth Kenny 1880 - 1952 Nurse and physiotherapist
Gordon Piper Gordon Piper 1932 - 2004 Actor, theatre director, scriptwriter and comedian
Catherine Hamlin Catherine Hamlin 1924 - 2020 Obstetrician and gynaecologist
Peter Thomson Peter Thomson 1929 - 2018 Golfer, course architect, writer
Sidney Nolan Sidney Nolan 1917 - 1992 Urban landscape painter
John Meillon John Meillon 1934 - 1989 Character actor and voice-over artist
Rupert Downes Rupert Downes 1885 - 1945 historian of the Sinai and Palestine campaign
Kate Jennings Kate Jennings 1948 - 2021 Writer and feminist activist
Graham Kennedy Graham Kennedy 1934 - 2005 Entertainer, comedian and variety performer
Rod Taylor Rod Taylor 1930 - 2015 Actor of film and television
Peter Sculthorpe Peter Sculthorpe 1929 - 2014 Composer of orchestral, chamber, vocal
Donald Metcalf Donald Metcalf 1929 - 2014 Discoverer of hormones
John Leslie Mackie John Leslie Mackie 1917 - 1981 philosophy of religion, philosophy of language
Frank Moorhouse Frank Moorhouse 1938 - 2022 Writer and essayist
Stella Bowen Stella Bowen 1893 - 1947 Impressionist painter and war artist
James Muir Auld James Muir Auld 1879 - 1942 Painter and illustrator
Paul Hester Paul Hester 1959 - 2005 Drummer and percussionist for Split Enz
Justin Yerbury Justin Yerbury 1974 - 2023 Professor in Neurodegenerative Disease
Louis Abrahams Louis Abrahams 1852 - 1903 Tobacconist and art patron
Heath Ledger Heath Ledger 1979 - 2008 Actor and director
James Wright James Wright 1927 - 2022 Medical doctor and media personality
Neville Henry Cayley Neville Henry Cayley 1854 - 1903 Artist and ornithologist
Fiona Stanley Fiona Stanley 1946 - 2020 Epidemiologist and public health researcher
Bill Kerr Bill Kerr 1922 - 2014 Actor and comedian
Archie Roach Archie Roach 1956 - 2022 Singer-songwriter and Aboriginal activist
Raymond Arthur Dart Raymond Arthur Dart 1893 - 1988 Discoverer of Australopithecus africanus
Adrian Quist Adrian Quist 1913 - 1991 Tennis player
Bill Ponsford Bill Ponsford 1900 - 1991 Tennis player, former world
John Curtin John Curtin 1885 - 1945 Prime Minister of Australia, leader
Basia Bonkowski Basia Bonkowski 1957 - 2022 Music television host on SBS
Jack Absalom Jack Absalom 1927 - 2019 Painter, author, adventurer
Janet Seidel Janet Seidel 1955 - 2017 Jazz vocalist and pianist
Olive Ashworth Olive Ashworth 1915 - 2000 Graphic designer and industrial designer
Bruce Edward Hobbs Bruce Edward Hobbs 1936 - 2014 Structural geologist and science administrator
Frank Cameron Jackson Frank Cameron Jackson 1943 - 2020 Philosophy of mind, epistemology, metaphysics
Peggy van Praagh Peggy van Praagh 1910 - 1990 Ballet dancer and director
Charles Tran Van Lam Charles Tran Van Lam 1913 - 2001 Diplomat
Chrissy Amphlett Chrissy Amphlett 1959 - 2013 Singer and songwriter of Divinyls
Bert Newton Bert Newton 1938 - 2021 Television personality and presenter
Howard Walter Florey Howard Walter Florey 1898 - 1968 Pharmacologist and pathologist who isolated
Alfred Deakin Alfred Deakin 1856 - 1919 Prime minister of Australia, leader
Vere Gordon Childe Vere Gordon Childe 1892 - 1957 Archaeologist and philologist
Judith Durham Judith Durham 1943 - 2022 Lead singer of The Seekers
Bob Hawke Bob Hawke 1929 - 2019 Prime minister of Australia and president
Johnny Raper Johnny Raper 1939 - 2022 Rugby league player and coach
Sir Grafton Elliot Smith Sir Grafton Elliot Smith 1871 - 1937 Anatomy, Egyptology, and hyperdiffusionism
Paul Dear Paul Dear 1966 - 2022 Australian rules footballer
Mitch Cronin Mitch Cronin 1992 - 2020 Rugby league player for Wynnum Manly Seagulls
Ross Higgins Ross Higgins 1931 - 2016 Ted Bullpitt in Kingswood Country
Ned Kelly Ned Kelly 1854 - 1880 Bushranger, outlaw, gang leader
Barrington Pheloung Barrington Pheloung 1954 - 2019 Composer and conductor
John Olsen John Olsen 1928 - 2023 Landscape painter
Weng Zhanqiu Weng Zhanqiu 1900 - 1945 Painter and writer
Patrick White Patrick White 1912 - 1990 Writing novels that explore the human condition
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet 1899 - 1985 Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine
Merle Mitchell Merle Mitchell 1934 - 2021 Community worker and former ACOSS president
Kimberley Kitching Kimberley Kitching 1970 - 2022 Politician, lawyer, trade unionist
Ellis Rowan Ellis Rowan 1848 - 1922 Artist and botanical illustrator
Con Colleano Con Colleano 1899 - 1973 Tightrope walker and circus performer
Clive James Clive James 1939 - 2019 Writing literary criticism, television reviews
Joan Sutherland Joan Sutherland 1926 - 2010 Opera singer and leading coloratura
Annalise Braakensiek Annalise Braakensiek 1972 - 2019 Model and actress
Frank Kingsley Norris Frank Kingsley Norris 1954 - 2019 Composer and conductor
Peter Keaston Reith Peter Keaston Reith 1950 - 2022 former deputy leader of the Liberal Party
William Leslie Bowles William Leslie Bowles 1885 - 1954 Sculptor and medallist for Australian Memorial
Maxine Klibingaitis Maxine Klibingaitis 1964 - 2023 Bobbie Mitchell in Prisoner and Terri Inglis
Shane Warne Shane Warne 1969 - 2022 Cricket legend and leg spin bowler
Betty Cuthbert Betty Cuthbert 1938 - 2017 Olympic champion
Greedy Smith Greedy Smith 1956 - 2019 Vocalist, keyboardist, harmonicist and songwriter
Jean Appleton Jean Appleton 1911 - 2003 Graphic designer and industrial designer
Roy Burston Roy Burston 1888 - 1960 Director General of Medical Services
Brett Whiteley Brett Whiteley 1939 - 1992 Watercolour landscape painter
Joan Lindsay Joan Lindsay 1896 - 1984 Novelist and painter who wrote Picnic
Ashley Cooper Ashley Cooper 1936 - 2020 Tennis player
Nick Cave Nick Cave 1957 - 2021 musician, writer, and actor
Steve Irwin Steve Irwin 1962 - 2006 wildlife conservationist, television personal
Marcus Laurence Elwin Mark Oliphant Marcus Laurence Elwin Mark Oliphant 1901 - 2000 First experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion
Annie Jean Macnamara Annie Jean Macnamara 1899 - 1968 Medical doctor and scientist on poliomyelitis
Andrew Symonds Andrew Symonds 1975 - 2022 Test and ODI cricketer for Australia
Samuel Alexander Samuel Alexander 1859 - 1938 Metaphysics, philosophy of religion
Lorrae Desmond Lorrae Desmond 1929 - 2021 actress
Noel Counihan Noel Counihan 1913 - 1986 Artist and activist
Ronald Ernest Aitchison Ronald Ernest Aitchison 1921 - 1996 Physicist and electronics engineer
Dieter Brummer Dieter Brummer 1976 - 2021 Soap opera star
Kerr Grant Kerr Grant 1908 - 1983 Physicist and electronics engineer
Rasul Amin Rasul Amin 1939 - 2009 Politician, Scholar
Ronald Newbold Bracewell Ronald Newbold Bracewell 1921 - 2007 Lewis M. Terman Professor
Florence Turner Blake Florence Turner Blake 1873 - 1959 Water-colour paintings on silk fans
Germaine Greer Germaine Greer 1939 - 2021 writer and public intellectual
Sir John Carew Eccles Sir John Carew Eccles 1903 - 1997 Developing the Edman degradation method for
Mae Dahlberg Mae Dahlberg 1888 - 1969 Vaudeville performer and actress
Liam Hampson Liam Hampson 1998 - 2020 Rugby league player for Redcliffe Dolphins
Earle Page Earle Page 1880 - 1961 Prime Minister of Australia and leader
Belinda Emmett Belinda Emmett 1974 - 2006 Actress and singer, best known for her roles
Ann Woolcock Ann Woolcock 1937 - 2001 Respiratory physician and scientist
Louisa Lawson Louisa Lawson 1848 - 1920 poet, publisher, and suffragist
Jeffrey Smart Jeffrey Smart 1921 - 2013 Urban landscape painter
Renee Geyer Renee Geyer 1953 - 2023 actress in A Country Practice
Brad Drewett Brad Drewett 1958 - 2013 Tennis player and ATP executive chairman
Colleen McCullough Colleen McCullough 1937 - 2015 Historical novelist and author of The Thorn Birds
John Job Crew Bradfield John Job Crew Bradfield 1867 - 1943 Chief engineer of Sydney Harbour Bridge
Roy James Cameron Roy James Cameron 1923 - 2006 Statistician and diplomat
Edith Cowan Edith Cowan 1861 - 1932 Social reformer and politician
Slim Dusty Slim Dusty 1927 - 2003 Country music singer-songwriter, guitarist
Herbert Cole Nugget Coombs Herbert Cole Nugget Coombs 1906 - 1997 First Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia
Neil Hamilton Fairley Neil Hamilton Fairley 1891 - 1966 Medical researcher and army officer
Gordon Andrews Gordon Andrews 1914 - 2001 Graphic designer and industrial designer
Brian McGuire Brian McGuire 1945 - 1977 Racing driver and constructor
Malcolm Fraser Malcolm Fraser 1930 - 1945 Prime Minister of Australia
Peter Allen Peter Allen 1944 - 1992 singer-songwriter, musician, and entertainer
David Gulpilil David Gulpilil 1953 - 2021 Playing a principal role in Walkabout
Andrew Barton Paterson Andrew Barton Paterson 1864 - 1941 Bush poet, journalist and author
Ivan Milat Ivan Milat 1944 - 2019 Serial killer who murdered seven backpackers
George Elton Mayo George Elton Mayo 1880 - 1949 Psychologist and sociologist
John Monash John Monash 1865 - 1931 Civil engineer and military commander
Jason Benjamin Jason Benjamin 1971 - 2021 Painter
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Top 10 Died Influential People

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  • 1. Robert Gordon Menzies

    Died: 1978 A.D
    Slogan: It is better to be defeated on principle than to win on lies.

    Robert Menzies was a prominent Australian politician and lawyer who served as the 12th prime minister of Australia for a total of over 18 years, making him the longest-serving prime minister in Australian history. He held office twice, first from 1939 to 1941 and then from 1949 to 1966. He was also the leader of the United Australia Party (UAP) in his first term and the founder and leader of the Liberal Party of Australia in his second term. Menzies was born in Jeparit, Victoria, on 20 December 1894. He was the fourth of five children of James Menzies, a storekeeper and politician, and Kate Sampson, a miner's daughter. He attended various schools in Ballarat and Melbourne before graduating with first-class honours in law from the University of Melbourne in 1916. He became a barrister in 1918 and quickly established himself as one of the leading lawyers in Victoria. He was appointed a King's Counsel in 1929, the youngest in Victoria at the time. Menzies entered politics in 1928 as a member of the Nationalist Party, which later became the UAP. He was elected to the Victorian Legislative Council and then to the Legislative Assembly, serving as Attorney-General and Minister for Railways. In 1934, he resigned from state politics and won the federal seat of Kooyong as a UAP candidate. He became Attorney-General and Minister for Industry in Joseph Lyons' government and was also deputy leader of the UAP from 1935. He resigned from cabinet in 1939 over a dispute about national insurance. Menzies became prime minister in April 1939 after Lyons died in office and Earle Page served as caretaker for 18 days. He led Australia into World War II and spent four months in England in 1941 to participate in Winston Churchill's war cabinet. However, he faced opposition from his coalition partner, the Country Party, and from some members of his own party. He lost the confidence of his party and resigned as prime minister in August 1941. He was succeeded by Arthur Fadden, who lasted only 40 days before being replaced by John Curtin of the Labor Party. Menzies remained as leader of the UAP until 1943, when he lost his seat at the federal election. He then helped to create a new conservative party, the Liberal Party of Australia, which he became the inaugural leader of in August 1945. He led the opposition against Curtin's successor, Ben Chifley, until he won the federal election in December 1949. He formed a coalition government with the Country Party and returned as prime minister. Menzies' second term as prime minister lasted for over 16 years, during which he won seven consecutive elections. He presided over a period of economic growth, social stability, immigration expansion, higher education development, national security policies, and international alliances. He strengthened Australia's ties with Britain and the United States, supported the creation of NATO and SEATO, signed the ANZUS Treaty and the Colombo Plan, sent troops to Korea, Malaya, and Vietnam, recognised Israel and Japan as sovereign states, opposed communism and apartheid, promoted British Commonwealth cooperation, and supported constitutional reform. Menzies retired as prime minister in January 1966 at the age of 71. He was succeeded by Harold Holt, who drowned a year later. Menzies remained active in public life until his death in May 1978. He wrote several books, gave lectures, served as chancellor of the University of Melbourne, and was involved in various cultural and educational organisations. He was knighted in 1963 and received many honours and awards, both in Australia and abroad. He was widely regarded as one of the most influential and respected figures in Australian history. Menzies was married to Pattie Maie Leckie, a journalist and political activist, from 1920 until her death in 1978. They had three children: Kenneth, Ian, and Heather. Menzies was a devout Presbyterian and a keen sportsman. He enjoyed cricket, golf, tennis, chess, and bridge. He was also fond of literature, music, art, and history. He had a distinctive voice and a sharp wit, which he used to great effect in his speeches and debates. He was known for his loyalty to his friends and his principles, as well as his ambition and determination. He was nicknamed "Ming" by his supporters and "Pig Iron Bob" by his critics.

  • 2. Edith Cowan

    Died: 1932 A.D
    Slogan: men and women can work for the same state side by side

    Edith Cowan was born on 2 August 1861 at Glanville Hall, near Geraldton, Western Australia. She was the second child of Kenneth Brown, a pastoralist and politician, and Mary Eliza Dircksey Wittenoom, a teacher. She had a traumatic childhood as her mother died in childbirth when she was seven and her father was hanged for murdering his second wife when she was 15. She was raised by her grandmother and educated at a boarding school in Perth. She married James Cowan, a lawyer and magistrate, in 1879 and they had five children. She became involved in various social causes, especially those related to women and children. She helped to establish the Children's Protection Society in 1906, which later became the Children's Court. She also founded the Women's Service Guilds in 1909, which advocated for women's rights, social justice and peace. She was a prominent member of the National Council of Women, which campaigned for women's suffrage, education, health and welfare. She also supported various charitable organisations, such as the Red Cross, the District Nurses Association and the Kindergarten Union. She was appointed as a Justice of the Peace in 1915 and an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1920. In 1921, she became the first woman to be elected to an Australian parliament, winning the seat of West Perth for the Nationalist Party. She faced considerable opposition and ridicule from her male colleagues, but she proved to be an effective and independent-minded parliamentarian. She introduced bills on women's legal status, migrant welfare, infant health centres and sex education. She also supported bills on workers' compensation, pensions and electoral reform. She lost her seat in 1924 but remained active in public life until her death. She died of heart disease on 9 June 1932 in Perth, Western Australia. She was buried at Karrakatta Cemetery, Perth. She was widely regarded as a pioneer of women's rights and social reform in Australia¹.

  • 3. John Monash

    Died: 1931 A.D
    Slogan: Equip yourself for life, not solely for your own benefit but for the benefit of the whole community.

    John Monash was an Australian civil engineer and military commander of the First World War. He commanded the 13th Infantry Brigade before the war and then, shortly after its outbreak, became commander of the 4th Brigade in Egypt, with whom he took part in the Gallipoli campaign. In July 1916 he took charge of the newly raised 3rd Division in northwestern France and in May 1918 became commander of the Australian Corps, at the time the largest corps on the Western Front. Monash is considered one of the best Allied generals of the First World War and the most famous commander in Australian history. Monash was born in West Melbourne on 27 June 1865 to German-Polish Jewish parents. He attended St Stephen's School in Richmond, Scotch College and the University of Melbourne, where he studied arts, engineering and law. He graduated with a master's degree in engineering in 1893 and a doctorate in civil law in 1921. He worked as a civil engineer for various contractors and projects, including railways, bridges and buildings. He also became a patent attorney and a lecturer at the University of Melbourne. Monash joined the militia in 1884 and rose through the ranks to become a colonel by 1913. He had a keen interest in military history and strategy, as well as engineering and intelligence. He volunteered for overseas service when the First World War broke out in 1914 and was appointed to command the 4th Brigade of the Australian Imperial Force. He landed at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915 and fought in several battles there, including Lone Pine, Sari Bair and Hill 60. He was wounded twice and mentioned in despatches five times. In December 1915, Monash and his brigade were evacuated from Gallipoli and sent to Egypt, where they joined the newly formed Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). In June 1916, Monash was promoted to major general and given command of the 3rd Division, which he trained and led to France in November. He fought on the Western Front for the next two years, participating in major battles such as Messines, Broodseinde, Passchendaele, Hamel and Amiens. He was known for his meticulous planning, innovative tactics, use of artillery and tanks, and care for his men. In May 1918, Monash was appointed to command the Australian Corps, which consisted of five divisions and about 200,000 men. He led them in some of the most decisive actions of the war, such as the Battle of Le Hamel on 4 July, which was a model of combined arms warfare and a precursor to the Hundred Days Offensive. He also played a key role in the Battle of Amiens on 8 August, which was described by the German general Erich Ludendorff as "the black day of the German Army". Monash's corps continued to advance until the end of the war on 11 November 1918, capturing more than 48,000 prisoners and liberating more than 116 towns and villages. Monash was widely praised for his achievements as a military leader. He was knighted by King George V on the battlefield on 12 August 1918, becoming the first Australian-born person to receive this honour. He also received numerous decorations from Britain, France, Belgium and the United States. He was hailed as "the most resourceful general of World War I" by British prime minister David Lloyd George and "the best general on the western front in Europe" by American general John J. Pershing. After the war, Monash returned to Australia in December 1919 and was given a hero's welcome. He resumed his civilian career as an engineer and became the general manager of the State Electricity Commission of Victoria in 1920. He was also involved in various public and community activities, such as the repatriation of war veterans, the establishment of the Shrine of Remembrance, the promotion of education and culture, and the support of Jewish causes. He was appointed vice-chancellor of the University of Melbourne in 1923 and held this position until his death. Monash died of heart disease in Melbourne on 8 October 1931, aged 66. He was given a state funeral attended by over 250,000 mourners. He was buried at Brighton General Cemetery with full military honours. He is widely regarded as one of Australia's greatest citizens and a national icon. His legacy lives on in many monuments and places named after him, such as Monash University, Monash Freeway, Monash Medical Centre, Monash City Council and several suburbs and streets across Australia.

  • 4. Neil Hamilton Fairley

    Died: 1966 A.D
    Slogan: The most important thing is to be driven by curiosity rather than ambition.

    the LHQ Medical Research Unit, he fast-tracked research into new drugs. Fairley convinced the Army of the efficacy of the new drug atebrin, and persuaded commanders to adopt a tough approach to administering the drug to the troops. After the war Fairley returned to London where he became a consulting physician to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases and Wellcome Professor of Tropical Medicine at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. A serious illness in 1948 forced him to resign his professorship, but he retained his practice and membership of numerous committees, becoming an "elder statesman" of tropical medicine. He died on 19 April 1966 at the age of 74. He was recognised as an Australian of the Year in 1967 for his contributions to medicine and science.

  • 5. Heath Ledger

    Died: 2008 A.D
    Slogan: if life was some kind of grocery list. But nobody ever asks if you are happy.

    Heath Ledger was an Australian actor who rose to fame in the late 1990s and early 2000s with his roles in films such as 10 Things I Hate About You, The Patriot, A Knight's Tale, Monster's Ball, Brokeback Mountain, and The Dark Knight. He was known for his versatility and charisma, as well as his dedication to his craft. He often immersed himself in his characters, sometimes to the point of physical and mental exhaustion. He also had a passion for directing and producing music videos, and he aspired to be a film director. He was in a relationship with actress Michelle Williams from 2004 to 2007, and they had a daughter named Matilda. He died at the age of 28 from an accidental overdose of prescription drugs in his apartment in New York City. His death was widely mourned by his fans, colleagues, friends, and family. He received numerous posthumous awards and honors for his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He is regarded as one of the most talented and influential actors of his generation.

  • 6. Bob Hawke

    Died: 2019 A.D
    Slogan: The things which are most important don't always scream the loudest

    Bob Hawke was an Australian politician and trade unionist who served as the 23rd prime minister of Australia from 1983 to 1991. He held office as the leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP), having previously served as the president of the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) from 1969 to 1980 and president of the Labor Party national executive from 1973 to 1978. Hawke was born in Border Town, South Australia. He attended the University of Western Australia and went on to study at University College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. In 1956, Hawke joined the ACTU as a research officer. Having risen to become responsible for national wage case arbitration, he was elected as president of the ACTU in 1969, where he achieved a high public profile. He entered politics at the 1980 elections and became Prime Minister within three years after defeating Malcolm Fraser's Liberal-National coalition government. He led Labor to four consecutive election victories in 1983, 1984, 1987 and 1990, making him the party's longest-serving and most electorally successful leader. As prime minister, Hawke implemented a range of economic and social reforms that modernised and transformed Australia's economy and society. He deregulated the financial sector, floated the Australian dollar, reduced tariffs and government spending, reformed the tax system, privatised state-owned enterprises, established Medicare and superannuation, increased funding for education and research, initiated environmental protection measures, promoted multiculturalism and Aboriginal rights, supported the arts and sports, and fostered closer relations with Asia and the Pacific. He also played a prominent role in international affairs, strengthening Australia's alliance with the United States, opposing apartheid in South Africa, supporting democracy movements in Eastern Europe and China, advocating for nuclear disarmament, and leading a successful intervention in Fiji after a military coup. Hawke's popularity and charisma made him one of the most popular and respected prime ministers in Australian history. He held the world record for beer drinking; he enjoyed betting on horse races; he was known for his colourful language; he often broke into tears in public; and he was dubbed by the media as "Hawkie". He was also admired for his consensus-building skills and his ability to work with different groups of people, such as business leaders, trade unions, farmers, environmentalists, and social activists. He maintained a close friendship and partnership with his deputy and eventual successor Paul Keating until 1991 when Keating challenged him for the leadership. Hawke resigned as prime minister after losing a second leadership challenge to Keating in December 1991. He retired from parliament in February 1992 and remained active in public life until his death in May 2019 at the age of 89.

  • 7. James Muir Auld

    Died: 1942 A.D
    Slogan: The sun shines not on us but in us.

    James Muir Auld was a respected Sydney-based portrait and landscape painter who trained with J.S. Watkins and Julian Ashton. He was active as a painter and illustrator for forty years and won the Wynne Prize in 1935. Auld was born in 1879 at Ashfield, where his father was a Presbyterian minister. His parents were Scottish immigrants who came to Sydney in 1873. Auld attended Ashfield Public School and Sydney Grammar School. He worked as a clerk with the Ashfield Council and enrolled in night classes in drawing at Ashfield Technical School. He spent much of his spare time drawing and sketching the foreshores of Sydney Harbour. Auld studied for six to seven years at J.S. Watkins's art school in Hunter Street, Sydney. Watkins was a popular teacher for students seeking careers as commercial and black and white artists. Auld also took lessons with Julian R. Ashton at his school in central Sydney. From 1902, Auld exhibited black and white studies and poster designs at the Royal Art Society of New South Wales (RAS) annual show in Sydney, but from 1906 he contributed mostly oil portraits and landscapes. Auld resigned from his clerical position in 1907 to work full-time as a professional artist. He advertised his services as a teacher of "drawing, painting and black and white" from his studio at Commercial Union Chambers, 99a Pitt Street, Sydney. The same year he was appointed to the RAS Executive Council and joined their hanging and selection committees. The following year he shared a studio with Will Ashton and the pair held a joint studio show titled 'Sketches & Impressions'. Auld was best known in his early career for his illustrations and joke blocks published in the Sydney Mail, Bulletin and Lone Hand. He illustrated at least five books, including Seafarers by Charles D. Websdale (1905), Gray Horses by Will H. Ogilvie (1914), and Lyrics and Mystic Sketches by Agnes Littlejohn (1928). In 1909, Auld travelled to London to study the work of English painters. There he had work accepted for London Opinion and other journals. Returning to Australia about 1911, he worked in Sydney on landscapes and figure subjects, and also did some portraits. On 1 July 1914, Auld married a divorcee Maggie Kate Kane (née Bell). In 1917, The Broken Vase was bought by the National Art Gallery of New South Wales. At about this time, they also purchased a portrait of the poet Roderic Quinn. Auld joined the Society of Artists, Sydney about 1920 and frequently exhibited with it. In the 1920s, he joined the well-known commercial art firm, Smith and Julius, and illustrated several books. Towards the end of his life Auld spent 11 years at Thirlmere, living alone. The surrounding Thirlmere landscape did not appear to be of an inspiring kind, but Auld's work at this period ranked with his best. Auld won the Wynne Prize in 1935 for his painting Winter Morning. He had three one-man exhibitions at the Macquarie Galleries, Sydney, in 1928, 1936 and 1938, and had also exhibited in London and Paris. Working with a palette knife, by 1938 he was expressing himself in a more delicate way with brushes. He was a foundation member of the Australian Academy of Art in 1938. Auld died of tuberculosis on 8 June 1942, survived by his daughter Thelma. He was a sound painter in the old traditions, who would not allow himself to be disturbed by the various movements which arose between the two wars. He had good colour, and was especially interested in effects of atmosphere and sunlight, which he expressed with much vitality. He was known as 'reserved, sensitive and honest.

  • 8. Alfred Deakin

    Died: 1919 A.D
    Slogan: The unity of Australia is nothing else than the welfare of Australia

    Alfred Deakin was born on 3 August 1856 in Melbourne, Victoria, to William Deakin and Sarah Bill, who emigrated from England to Adelaide in 1849. William worked as a clerk, a storekeeper, a coachman and a manager of Cobb & Co. in Victoria. Alfred was educated at Melbourne Church of England Grammar School and the University of Melbourne, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1877 and was admitted as a barrister in 1878. He also worked as a journalist for The Age newspaper and wrote anonymously for the London Morning Post. Deakin entered politics in 1879, when he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for West Bourke. He held various ministerial positions, including Solicitor-General, Minister for Public Works and Chief Secretary. He was a prominent advocate for the federation of the Australian colonies and attended the federal conventions in 1891 and 1897–98 as a delegate for Victoria. He played a key role in drafting the federal constitution and campaigned for its approval by the people and the British government. After Federation in 1901, Deakin became the first Attorney-General of Australia in the ministry led by Edmund Barton. He succeeded Barton as prime minister in September 1903. He held office three times: from 1903 to 1904, from 1905 to 1908 and from 1909 to 1910. He led the Protectionist Party until 1909, when he merged it with the Free Traders to form the Liberal Party. He formed coalitions with the Australian Labor Party in his first two terms and with the conservatives in his third term. Deakin's governments introduced many progressive reforms, such as tariff protection, old age pensions, maternity allowances, conciliation and arbitration, defence expansion and preferential voting. He also supported the White Australia policy, compulsory voting and women's suffrage. He was a strong supporter of the British Empire and its involvement in World War I. He was an eloquent speaker and a prolific writer, publishing several books on politics, religion and spiritualism. Deakin retired from politics in 1913 due to ill health. He suffered from a degenerative neurological condition that affected his memory and speech. He died on 7 October 1919 at his home in South Yarra, Melbourne, aged 63. He was given a state funeral and buried at St Kilda Cemetery. He is widely regarded as one of Australia's most influential prime ministers and one of the architects of the Australian nation.

  • 9. Rupert Downes

    Died: 1945 A.D
    Slogan: The best way to save life is to prevent wounds.

    Rupert Downes was born on 10 February 1885 in Mitcham, South Australia, Australia. He was the son of Major Francis Downes, a British Army officer who served in the Crimean War, and Helen Maria Chamberlin. He attended Melbourne Church of England Grammar School and then studied medicine at the University of Melbourne, graduating with his medical degrees in 1907 and a Doctor of Medicine degree in 1911. He joined the Australian Army Medical Corps in 1912 and served as a medical officer in World War I, first at Gallipoli and then on the Western Front. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his bravery at the Battle of Messines in 1917. He also became a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George and a Commander of the Order of the British Empire for his service. He was appointed Assistant Director of Medical Services (ADMS) of the newly formed Anzac Mounted Division in 1916, which he combined with the post of ADMS AIF Egypt. In 1917, he became Deputy Director of Medical Services (DDMS) of the Desert Mounted Corps. He introduced several innovations in medical care and evacuation of wounded soldiers, such as sand sledges, mobile surgical units and blood transfusions. After the war, he wrote articles on medical aspects of the Sinai and Palestine campaign, and the section on the campaign for the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 . Returning to Australia, Downes became an honorary consulting surgeon at various hospitals in Adelaide and Melbourne. He also became a fellow of the College of Surgeons of Australasia in 1927, and president of the Victorian branch of the British Medical Association in 1935. He lectured on medical ethics at the University of Melbourne, writing the course textbook. He was also Victorian state commissioner of the St John Ambulance Brigade, which he led for 25 years, and president of the St John Ambulance Association for eight years. In 1934 Downes became Director General of Medical Services, the Australian Army's most senior medical officer, with the rank of major general. He oversaw the construction of major military hospitals in the capital cities. In 1944 he accepted a commission to edit the medical series volumes of the Official History of Australia in the War of 1939–1945 but he was killed in a plane crash near Cairns on 5 March 1945, before he could begin the work. He was buried at St Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney. He was widely respected for his leadership, vision and passion for medicine and history¹.

  • 10. Earle Page

    Died: 1961 A.D
    Slogan: Australia is a nation of great potential and it is just waiting for development

    Earle Page was born on 8 August 1880 in Grafton, New South Wales, Australia. He was the fifth of 11 children of Charles Page, a blacksmith and coach builder, and Annie Cox. He attended a government primary school in Grafton and won a scholarship to Sydney High School. He matriculated after a year and entered the University of Sydney at the age of 15. He studied medicine and graduated with first-class honours at the age of 21. He worked as a house surgeon at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and then returned to Grafton in 1903, where he opened a private hospital. He married Ethel Blunt in 1906 and they had five children. He also became involved in various business ventures, such as timber milling, dairy farming and newspaper publishing. He was elected as the mayor of South Grafton in 1915 and founded the Northern NSW Separation League, which campaigned for a separate state for the north-eastern region of NSW. He enlisted as a surgeon with the Army Medical Corps in 1916 and served in Egypt, England and France during World War I. He returned to Australia via Canada and the USA to inspect hydro-electricity projects. In 1918, he set up the Nymboida hydro-electric scheme, which supplied power to Grafton and surrounding areas. He was elected to the federal parliament as the member for Cowper in 1919 as an independent candidate supported by the Farmers and Settlers Association. In 1920, he joined with 10 other rural MPs to form the Country Party (later renamed the National Party). He became the leader of the party in 1921 and held that position until 1939. He was also the deputy prime minister under Stanley Bruce (1923–1929) and Joseph Lyons (1934–1939). He served as the treasurer from 1923 to 1929 and introduced several reforms, such as income tax cuts, tariff reductions, child endowment payments and old-age pensions. He also advocated for regional development and decentralisation, and supported immigration schemes and closer ties with Britain. He briefly became the prime minister after Lyons' death in April 1939, but his term lasted only 19 days until Robert Menzies took over as the leader of the United Australia Party (UAP). Page made a bitter personal attack on Menzies in parliament, accusing him of cowardice and disloyalty during World War I. This caused a rift between the UAP and the Country Party, which led to Page being replaced as party leader by Archie Cameron later that year. Page remained in parliament as a backbencher until 1940, when he returned to cabinet as the minister for commerce under Menzies and Arthur Fadden. He lost his portfolio when John Curtin's Labor Party came to power in 1941. He regained his position as the leader of the Country Party in 1944 after Cameron's death. He was also appointed as the minister for health in Menzies' second government from 1949 to 1956. He introduced free hospital treatment for pensioners and oversaw improvements in medical research, public health and pharmaceutical benefits. He retired from politics in 1961 after serving for a record 42 years as an MP. He died of lung cancer on 20 December 1961 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. He was buried at St Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney. He was widely regarded as a visionary and energetic leader who made significant contributions to the development of rural and regional Australia¹.

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