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Georgios Papandreou Georgios Papandreou 1888 - 1968 prime minister of Greece
Daniel Carasso Daniel Carasso 1905 - 2009 Founder of Danone and Dannon
Mid'hat Frasheri Mid'hat Frasheri 1880 - 1949 Founder of Balli Kombëtar
Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy II Philadelphus 308 - 246 King of Egypt, patron of arts and sciences
Alexander the Great Alexander the Great -356 - -323 King of Macedon and Hegemon of the Hellenic League
Nazim Hikmet Nazim Hikmet 1902 - 1963 Poet, playwright, novelist, screenwriter
Georgios Papanikolaou Georgios Papanikolaou 1883 - 1962 Medical Innovator
Olga of Greece and Denmark Olga of Greece and Denmark 1903 - 1997 Princess consort and regent of Yugoslavia
Socrates Socrates -469 - -399 Philosopher
Aliki Vougiouklaki Aliki Vougiouklaki 1934 - 1996 Actress, singer and theatrical producer
Olubayo Adefemi Olubayo Adefemi 1985 - 2011 Defender
Simeon Metaphrastes Simeon Metaphrastes 900 - 1000 Hagiographer and writer
Georgios Papadopoulos Georgios Papadopoulos 1919 - 1999 Leader of the Greek military junta of 1967–1974
Pothinus Pothinus -177 - -47 Regent for Ptolemy XIII
Prince George of Greece and Denmark Prince George of Greece and Denmark 1869 - 1957 High Commissioner of the Cretan State
Fikriye Hanim Fikriye Hanim 1887 - 1924 Relative and lover of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Konstantinos Theotokis Konstantinos Theotokis 1872 - 1923 Novelist of the realist school
Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris 1921 - 1997 Greek naval hero and prime minister
Titos Vandis Titos Vandis 1917 - 2003 Stage and screen actor
Pargali Ibrahim Pasha Pargali Ibrahim Pasha 1495 - 1536 Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Leonidas I Leonidas I 540 - 480 Spartan King
Raoul Aslan Raoul Aslan 1886 - 1958 Theater actor and director
Constantine Kanaris Constantine Kanaris 1790 - 1877 Greek naval hero and prime minister
Constantine I Constantine I 272 - 337 Roman emperor and Christian convert
Odysseas Elytis Odysseas Elytis 1911 - 1996 Poet and Nobel laureate
Athanasios Diakos Athanasios Diakos 1788 - 1821 Military commander during the Greek independence
Phidias Phidias -490 - -430 Sculptor of the gods
Sappho Sappho -630 - -570 Lyric poet
Theodoros Diligiannis Theodoros Diligiannis 1826 - 1905 Prime Minister of Greece
Teodor Keko Teodor Keko 1958 - 2002 Writer, journalist, politician
Demetrius Vikelas Demetrius Vikelas 1835 - 1908 Businessman and writer
Spyridon Louis Spyridon Louis 1873 - 1940 Runner
Pericles Pericles -495 - -429 Leader of Athens
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark 1882 - 1944 Prince of Greece and Denmark
Adamantios Korais Adamantios Korais 1748 - 1833 Greek humanist scholar
Cyril Lucaris Cyril Lucaris 1572 - 1638 Patriarch of Constantinople and Alexandria
Aristotelis Valaoritis Aristotelis Valaoritis 1824 - 1879 Poet and politician of the Heptanese School
Helen Vlachos Helen Vlachos 1911 - 1995 Newspaper publisher and anti-junta activist
Jacques Damala Jacques Damala 1855 - 1889 Actor and husband of Sarah Bernhardt
Nikolaos Sokrates Politis Nikolaos Sokrates Politis 1872 - 1942 International lawyer, diplomat, scholar
El Greco El Greco 1541 - 1614 Painter and architect of the Spanish Renaissance
Alexandros Papagos Alexandros Papagos 1883 - 1955 General and Prime Minister of Greece
Plutarch Plutarch 46 - 119 Biographer of Parallel Lives and author of Moralia
Necati Cumali Necati Cumali 1921 - 2001 Writer and poet
Constantine I Constantine I 272 - 337 Roman emperor, first Christian emperor
Anacreon Anacreon -582 - -485 Lyric poet
Plato Plato -427 - -347 philosopher
Katina Paxinou Katina Paxinou 1900 - 1973 Film and stage actress
Konstantinos Tsiklitiras Konstantinos Tsiklitiras 1888 - 1913 Olympic champion in standing long jump
Thucydides Thucydides -400 - -460 Author of the History of the Peloponnesian War
Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark 1914 - 2001 Princess of Hesse-Kassel and Hanover
Democritus Democritus -370 - -460 Philosopher and scientist
Aspasia Manos Aspasia Manos 1896 - 1972 Wife of King Alexander I of Greece
Stelios Kazantzidis Stelios Kazantzidis 1931 - 2001 Singer of Greek popular music
Ioannis Kapodistrias Ioannis Kapodistrias 1776 - 1831 First head of state of independent Greece
Dimitri Mitropoulos Dimitri Mitropoulos 1896 - 1960 Conductor, pianist, composer
Euclid Euclid 265 - 300 Mathematician
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt 1789 - 1848 General and viceroy of Egypt
Sophocles Sophocles -496 - -406 Tragic playwright and poet
Nikolaos Makarezos Nikolaos Makarezos 1919 - 2009 Army officer and junta leader
Markos Vafiades Markos Vafiades 1906 - 1992 Communist leader and guerrilla commander
Dionysios Solomos Dionysios Solomos 1798 - 1857 Writer of the Hymn to Liberty
Eugenios Voulgaris Eugenios Voulgaris 1716 - 1806 Cleric, author, educator, mathematician
Clement of Alexandria Clement of Alexandria 150 - 215 Christian apologist
George II of Greece George II of Greece 1890 - 1947 King of Greec
Vassilis Alexakis Vassilis Alexakis 1943 - 2021 Writer and self-translator
Penelope Penelope -1230 - -1160 Queen of Ithaca and faithful wife of Odysseus
Christodoulos Paraskevaidis Christodoulos Paraskevaidis 1939 - 2008 Archbishop of Athens and All Greece
Alexandros Mavrokordatos Alexandros Mavrokordatos 1791 - 1865 Prime Minister of Greece
Theodoros Kolokotronis Theodoros Kolokotronis 1770 - 1843 General and leader of the Greek War
Maurice Abravanel Maurice Abravanel 1903 - 1993 Music director of the Utah Symphony
Spartacus Spartacus -71 - -111 Slave rebellion leader
Aristotle Aristotle -384 - -322 Philosopher
Homer Homer -701 - -800 Epic poet
Dimitris Mitropanos Dimitris Mitropanos 1948 - 2012 Singer of laiko and entekhno music
Porphyrios Bairaktaris Porphyrios Bairaktaris 1906 - 1991 Athonite hieromonk and spiritual father
Xenophon Xenophon -430 - -354 Military leader, writer, student of Socrates
Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark 1872 - 1938 Prince and painter
Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark 1911 - 1937 Princess
Kristo Negovani Kristo Negovani 1875 - 1905 Author of Istori e dhiatësë vietërë
Germanus I of Constantinople Germanus I of Constantinople 634 - 740 Patriarch of Constantinople and theologian
Anastasios Metaxas Anastasios Metaxas 1862 - 1937 Architect and shooter
Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark 1913 - 2007 Painter
Alexandros Koumoundouros Alexandros Koumoundouros 1815 - 1883 Prime Minister of Greece
Leonidas Pelekanakis Leonidas Pelekanakis 1962 - 2021 sailor
Dimitrios Loundras Dimitrios Loundras 1885 - 1970 Gymnast and naval officer
Jerzy Ivanov-Szajnowicz Jerzy Ivanov-Szajnowicz 1911 - 1943 Saboteur in the Greek Resistance
George Gordon Byron George Gordon Byron 1788 - 1824 Poet and laureate
Giannis Poulopoulos Giannis Poulopoulos 1941 - 2020 Singer-songwriter
Aesop Aesop -564 - -620 Fabulist and storyteller
Epicurus Epicurus -341 - -270 Founder of Epicureanism
Artemisia I of Caria Artemisia I of Caria 350 - 450 Queen of Halicarnassus and ally of Xerxes I
Melina Mercouri Melina Mercouri 1920 - 1994 actress, politician, activist
Pythagoras Pythagoras -570 - -495 Mathematics
Gulnus Sultan Gulnus Sultan 1642 - 1715 Haseki Sultan of Mehmed IV
Kosem Sultan Kosem Sultan 1589 - 1651 Sultana and regent of the Ottoman Empire
Jean Moreas Jean Moreas 1856 - 1910 Symbolist poet and critic
Salamo Arouch Salamo Arouch 1923 - 2009 Boxer
Andreas Kalvos Andreas Kalvos 1792 - 1869 Poet of the Romantic school
Ali Dino Ali Dino 1890 - 1938 Cartoonist and Member of the Greek Parliament
Nico Minardos Nico Minardos 1930 - 2011 Actor and producer
Helen of Troy Helen of Troy -1200 - -1242 Queen of Sparta, cause of the Trojan War
Nikos Kazantzakis Nikos Kazantzakis 1883 - 1957 Writer and philosopher
Kostis Palamas Kostis Palamas 1859 - 1943 Poet and lyricist of the Olympic Hymn
John III Ducas Vatatzes John III Ducas Vatatzes 1192 - 1254 Emperor of Nicaea and Byzantine ruler
Charilaos Trikoupis Charilaos Trikoupis 1832 - 1896 Prime Minister of Greece
Yvonne Sanson Yvonne Sanson 1925 - 2003 Melodrama star
Nikos Skalkottas Nikos Skalkottas 1904 - 1949 modernist composer and violinist
Demetrios Chalkokondyles Demetrios Chalkokondyles 1423 - 1511 Greek scholar and professor
Mother Teresa Mother Teresa 1910 - 1997
Rigas Feraios Rigas Feraios 1757 - 1798 Leader of the Greek Enlightenment
Alexandra of Yugoslavia Alexandra of Yugoslavia 1921 - 1993 Queen consort of Yugoslavia
Stylianos Pattakos Stylianos Pattakos 1912 - 2016 Military officer and junta leader
Timothy Timothy 17 - 97 Disciple of Paul the Apostle
Medea Medea -1300 - -1350 Helper of Jason and the Argonauts
Kostas Paskalis Kostas Paskalis 1929 - 2007 Opera singer
Athenagoras I of Constantinople Athenagoras I of Constantinople 1886 - 1972 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Grigoris Lambrakis Grigoris Lambrakis 1912 - 1963 Physician, lecturer, Member of Parliament
Manolis Glezos Manolis Glezos 1922 - 2020 Resistance fighter and journalist
Namik Kemal Namik Kemal 1840 - 1888 Poet, playwright and social reformer
Solon Solon -560 - -630 Reformer of Athens and founder of democracy
Theophanes the Confessor Theophanes the Confessor 732 - 817 Monk and chronicler
Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas 1296 - 1357 Orthodox monk and archbishop of Thessalonica
Hyginus Hyginus 100 - 142 Bishop of Rome
Dimitris Kremastinos Dimitris Kremastinos 1942 - 2020 cardiologist and health minister
Markos Botsaris Markos Botsaris 1790 - 1823 Leader of the Souliots and general of the Greek
Hagop Hagopian Hagop Hagopian 1951 - 1988 Founder and leader of ASALA
Heraclitus Heraclitus -535 - -475 Pre-Socratic philosopher
Gregory V of Constantinople Gregory V of Constantinople 1746 - 1821 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Helen of Greece and Denmark Helen of Greece and Denmark 1896 - 1982 Princess of Greece and Denmark
Dimitrios Kallergis Dimitrios Kallergis 1803 - 1867 Fighter of the Greek War of Independence
Georgios Hatzidakis Georgios Hatzidakis 1843 - 1941 Linguist and philologist
Hippocrates Hippocrates -460 - -370 Father of medicine
Stavros Spyrou Niarchos Stavros Spyrou Niarchos 1909 - 1996 Shipping tycoon and art collector
Diophantus Diophantus -200 - -284 Author of Arithmetica
Anthimus VII Tsatsos Anthimus VII Tsatsos 1827 - 1913 Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Alexander of Greece Alexander of Greece 1893 - 1920 King of the Hellenes
Angelique Ionatos Angelique Ionatos 1954 - 2021 Singer and composer
Yannis Ritsos Yannis Ritsos 1909 - 1990 Poet and activist
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  • 1. Plato

    Died: -347 A.D
    Slogan: The measure of a man is what he does with power.

    Plato was a philosopher in ancient Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered one of the most important figures in Western philosophy. Plato was a student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. He wrote numerous philosophical dialogues, including The Republic, which presents his vision of an ideal society. Plato's philosophy covers a wide range of topics, including ethics, politics, metaphysics, and epistemology. His ideas continue to be studied and debated to this day.Little is known about Plato's early life and education. He belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, modern scholars believe he was born in Athens or Aegina, between 428[10] and 423 BC. The exact time and place of birth are unknown. He was known to have worn earrings and finger rings during his youth to stand out and make himself look distinguished.The extent of Plato's affinity for jewelry while young was even characterized as "decadent" by Sextus Empiricus. Plato gives little biographical information, but refers at various points to some of his relatives with a great degree of precision, including his brothers, Adeimantus, and Glaucon, in the Plato's Republic. These and other references make it possible to reconstruct Plato's family tree.[15] Plato may have travelled in Italy, Sicily, Egypt, and Cyrene,[16] but at 40, Plato founded a school of philosophy in Athens, the Academy, on a plot of land in the Grove of Hecademus or Academus,[17] named after Academus, an Attic hero in Greek mythology. The Academy operated until it was destroyed by Sulla in 84 BC. Many philosophers studied at the Academy, the most prominent being Aristotle. According to Diogenes Laertius, throughout his later life, Plato became entangled with the politics of the city of Syracuse, where he attempted to replace the tyrant Dionysius,[20] with Dionysius's brother-in-law, Dion of Syracuse, whom Plato had recruited as one of his followers, but the tyrant himself turned against Plato. Plato almost faced death, but was sold into slavery. Anniceris, a Cyrenaic philosopher, bought Plato's freedom for twenty minas, and sent him home. After Dionysius's death, according to Plato's Seventh Letter, Dion requested Plato return to Syracuse to tutor Dionysius II, who seemed to accept Plato's teachings, but eventually became suspicious of their motives, expelling Dion and holding Plato against his will. Eventually Plato left Syracuse and Dion would return to overthrow Dionysius and rule Syracuse, before being usurped by Callippus, a fellow disciple of Plato. A variety of sources have given accounts of Plato's death. One story, based on a mutilated manuscript,[22] suggests Plato died in his bed, whilst a young Thracian girl played the flute to him. Another tradition suggests Plato died at a wedding feast. The account is based on Diogenes Laertius's reference to an account by Hermippus, a third-century Alexandrian. According to Tertullian, Plato simply died in his sleep.

  • 2. Aristotle

    Died: -322 A.D
    Slogan: We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit

    Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. Taught by Plato, he was the founder of the Lyceum, the Peripatetic school of philosophy, and the Aristotelian tradition. His writings cover many subjects including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government. Aristotle's philosophy was influential throughout the Hellenic world, and later in the Islamic Golden Age, and it continues to influence modern Western thought.In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established. The biographies written in ancient times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.[A] Aristotle was born in 384 BC[B] in Stagira, Chalcidice,[2] about 55 km (34 miles) east of modern-day Thessaloniki.[3][4] His father, Nicomachus, was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. While he was young, Aristotle learned about biology and medical information, which was taught by his father.[5] Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, and Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian.[6] Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy.[7] School of Aristotle in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy.[8] He probably experienced the Eleusinian Mysteries as he wrote when describing the sights one viewed at the Eleusinian Mysteries, "to experience is to learn" [παθείν μαθεĩν].[9] Aristotle remained in Athens for nearly twenty years before leaving in 348,47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died. Aristotle then accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon. While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. They had a daughter, whom they also named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander. ,Aristotle tutoring Alexander , by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal Academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants. By 335 BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira. They had a son whom Aristotle named after his father, Nicomachus. If the Suda – an uncritical compilation from the Middle Ages – is accurate, he may also have had an erômenos, Palaephatus of Abydus. Portrait bust of Aristotle; an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd century AD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works.He wrote many dialogues, of which only fragments have survived. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul and Poetics. Aristotle studied and made significant contributions to "logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance, and theatre. Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia and Persians. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim made some six years after the death.Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens was rekindled. In 322 BC, Demophilus and Eurymedon the Hierophant reportedly denounced Aristotle for impiety, prompting him to flee to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, on Euboea, at which occasion he was said to have stated: I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophya reference to Athens's trial and execution of Socrates. He died in Chalcis, Euboea[2][21][15] of natural causes later that same year, having named his student Antipater as his chief executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.

  • 3. Solon

    Died: -630 A.D
    Slogan: Laws are like spiders' webs: if some poor creature comes up against them, it is caught

    Solon was a prominent Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet who lived in the 6th century BCE. He is credited with reforming the social and political structure of Athens and laying the foundations for Athenian democracy. He abolished debt slavery, redistributed land among the citizens, created a new constitution based on four classes of wealth, and established a council of 400 to prepare matters for the assembly. He also introduced a system of popular courts where citizens could appeal against the decisions of magistrates. Solon's laws were inscribed on wooden tablets and displayed in the agora, the public square of Athens. Solon also wrote poetry for pleasure, propaganda, and defense of his reforms. His poems deal with various topics such as morality, politics, history, and mythology. He is regarded as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, a group of sages who were renowned for their wisdom and achievements. Solon traveled widely in his later years, visiting Egypt, Lydia, and Cyprus. He died in Cyprus around 560 BCE. His legacy was admired by later generations of Greeks, especially the Athenians who considered him as the founder of their democracy.

  • 4. Pericles

    Died: -429 A.D
    Slogan: Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't mean politics take an interest in you

    Pericles was a Greek statesman, orator, general, and patron of the arts who led Athens in the 5th century BCE, a period known as the Golden Age or the Age of Pericles. He came from a wealthy and influential family of aristocrats and promoted democracy, culture, and empire in Athens. He initiated the construction of the Acropolis and the Parthenon, two iconic monuments of ancient Greece. He also fought in several wars, such as the Persian War, the Delian League, the Samian War, and the Peloponnesian War, which eventually led to his death from the plague in 429 BCE. His life and legacy were recorded by historians like Thucydides and Plutarch, who admired and criticized him in different ways. Pericles was born around 495 BCE in Athens, Greece. His father was Xanthippus, a politician and general who had fought against the Persians at the Battle of Mycale. His mother was Agariste, a member of the powerful and controversial Alcmaeonid family, which had a history of involvement in tyranny and reform. Pericles was educated by some of the best teachers of his time, such as Anaxagoras, Zeno, and Protagoras. He also learned music and poetry from Damon and Pythocleides. He was influenced by the philosophy of Ionian rationalism and the art of Ionic architecture. ⁴ Pericles began his political career in the 460s BCE, when he became a leader of the democratic faction in Athens. He opposed the conservative aristocrats led by Cimon, who favored a friendly alliance with Sparta and a moderate expansion of Athenian power. Pericles advocated for a more radical democracy, a stronger naval empire, and a cultural revolution. He was elected strategos (general) for the first time in 461 BCE and held this office almost continuously until his death. He also dominated the popular assembly (ekklesia) with his eloquence and charisma. He introduced reforms that increased the participation and representation of the common people in the government, such as paying salaries to public officials, jurors, and soldiers; creating new courts and magistrates; expanding citizenship rights; and supporting colonization and immigration. ⁴ Pericles also transformed Athens into a cultural center of Greece. He sponsored public works that beautified and fortified the city, such as building walls, temples, theaters, statues, and fountains. His most famous project was the construction of the Acropolis, which included the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens. The Acropolis was designed by architects like Ictinus and Callicrates and decorated by sculptors like Phidias and painters like Polygnotus. It was a symbol of Athenian pride, piety, and power. Pericles also fostered the development of literature, philosophy, drama, music, and art in Athens. He patronized writers like Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Herodotus, Thucydides, and Plato; philosophers like Anaxagoras, Socrates, Protagoras, and Zeno; musicians like Damon and Pythocleides; artists like Phidias, Polygnotus,and Zeuxis;and many others.He encouraged free speech,critical thinking,and artistic expression.He also organized festivals and competitions that showcased Athenian culture,such as the Panathenaia,the Dionysia,and the Olympic Games.⁴ Pericles also led Athens in several wars that shaped the history of Greece. He fought against the Persians in the second Persian War (480-479 BCE) and helped form the Delian League, an alliance of Greek city-states that aimed to liberate the Aegean islands and Asia Minor from Persian rule. He also fought against the Spartans and their allies in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE), a conflict that arose from the rivalry between Athens and Sparta, the two most powerful states in Greece. Pericles pursued a defensive strategy, relying on the superior Athenian navy and the protection of the Long Walls that connected Athens to its port of Piraeus. He also tried to maintain the loyalty and tribute of the Athenian allies, who resented the imperialistic policies of Athens. He faced several challenges and setbacks, such as the revolt of Samos (440-439 BCE), the outbreak of the plague (430-427 BCE), which killed a third of the Athenian population, including Pericles himself, and the defection of several allies, such as Megara, Lesbos, and Boeotia. ⁴ Pericles died in 429 BCE, after suffering from a fever for several weeks. He was mourned by his friends, family, and admirers, who considered him the greatest leader of Athens. He was survived by his partner Aspasia, a Milesian courtesan who was his companion and adviser for many years, and his two sons, Paralus and Xanthippus, who also died from the plague. He was buried in a public tomb in the Kerameikos Cemetery, where he had delivered his famous funeral oration in honor of the fallen Athenians in 431 BCE. In his speech, he praised the virtues of democracy, freedom, justice, courage, and glory that defined Athenian identity and culture. He also urged his fellow citizens to continue the war against Sparta and to preserve their way of life. ⁴ Pericles was one of the most influential figures in ancient history. He shaped the political and cultural landscape of Athens and Greece for generations to come. He was admired by many as a visionary leader, a brilliant orator, a wise statesman, a generous patron, and a noble warrior. He was also criticized by some as a demagogue, a tyrant, a warmonger, a corrupt politician, and a decadent aristocrat. His legacy is still debated and celebrated today by historians, philosophers, artists, and politicians. He is regarded as one of the founders of Western civilization and one of the champions of democracy and humanism. ⁴

  • 5. Leonidas I

    Died: 480 A.D
    Slogan: Molon Labe (Come and take them)

    Leonidas I was born on June 20, 540, in Sparta, Greece. He was a Spartan king known for his leadership and bravery. Leonidas is most famous for his role in the Battle of Thermopylae, where he led a small force of Spartans against a much larger Persian army. Despite being outnumbered, Leonidas and his men fought valiantly, holding off the Persians for several days before ultimately being defeated. Leonidas died in battle on August 11, 480, in Thermopylae, Greece. He was laid to rest at the battlefield, where a monument was erected in his honor. His sacrifice and courage have made him a symbol of Spartan valor and resistance. According to Herodotus, Leonidas' mother was not only his father's wife, but also his father's niece and had been barren for so long that the ephors, the five annually elected administrators of the Spartan constitution, tried to prevail upon King Anaxandridas II to set her aside and take another wife. Anaxandridas refused, claiming his wife was blameless, whereupon the ephors agreed to allow him to take a second wife without setting aside his first. This second wife, a descendant of Chilon of Sparta (one of the Seven Sages of Greece), promptly bore a son, Cleomenes. However, one year after Cleomenes' birth, Anaxandridas' first wife also gave birth to a son, Dorieus. Leonidas was the second son of Anaxandridas first wife, and either the elder brother or twin of Cleombrotus. King Anaxandridas II died in c. 524 BC,and Cleomenes succeeded to the throne sometime between then and 516 BC. Dorieus was so outraged that the Spartans had preferred his half-brother over himself that he found it impossible to remain in Sparta. He made one unsuccessful attempt to set up a colony in Africa and, when this failed, sought his fortune in Sicily, where after initial successes he was killed. Leonidas' relationship with his bitterly antagonistic elder brothers is unknown, but he married Cleomenes' daughter, Gorgo, sometime before coming to the throne in 490 BC. Leonidas was heir to the Agiad throne and a full citizen (homoios) at the time of the Battle of Sepeia against Argos (c. 494 BC). Likewise, he was a full citizen when the Persians sought submission from Sparta and met with vehement rejection in 492,491 BC. His elder half-brother, king Cleomenes, had already been deposed on grounds of purported insanity, and had fled into exile when Athens sought assistance against the First Persian invasion of Greece, that ended at Marathon (490 BC).Plutarch wrote, “When someone said to him: 'Except for being king you are not at all superior to us,' Leonidas son of Anaxandridas and brother of Cleomenes replied: 'But were I not better than you, I should not be king.'"[7] The product of the agoge, Leonidas was unlikely to have been referring to his royal blood alone but rather suggesting that, like his brother Dorieus, he had proved himself superior in the competitive environment of Spartan training and society, thus making him qualified to rule. Leonidas was chosen to lead the combined Greek forces determined to resist the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 481 BC.[8] This was not simply a tribute to Sparta's military prowess: The probability that the coalition wanted Leonidas personally for his capability as a military leader is underlined by the fact that just two years after his death, the coalition preferred Athenian leadership to the leadership of either Leotychidas or Leonidas' successor (as regent for his still under-aged son) Pausanias. The rejection of Leotychidas and Pausanias was not a reflection on Spartan arms. Sparta's military reputation had never stood in higher regard, nor was Sparta less powerful in 478 BC than it had been in 481 BC.[8] This selection of Leonidas to lead the defence of Greece against Xerxes' invasion led to Leonidas' death in the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC

  • 6. El Greco

    Died: 1614 A.D
    Slogan: I paint because the spirits whisper madly inside my head

    El Greco was a Greek artist who worked in Spain during the Renaissance. He was born in Crete around 1541 and studied under Titian in Venice. He moved to Toledo, Spain, around 1577 and developed his distinctive style of dramatic and expressionistic art. He was not well understood by his contemporaries, but his influence and reputation grew in the 20th century. El Greco's father was a merchant and tax collector. He received his initial training as an icon painter of the Cretan school, a leading center of post-Byzantine art. He also studied the classics of ancient Greece and perhaps Latin as well. He left a working library of 130 volumes at his death, including the Bible in Greek and an annotated Vasari book. El Greco went to Italy to master the modern Western Renaissance style. He stayed in Venice from 1568 to 1570, where he learned from Tintoretto, Veronese, and Titian. He then moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. He was influenced by Michelangelo and Raphael, but also developed his own mannerist style that contrasted with the naturalism of his Italian peers. El Greco left Rome in 1576, after a dispute with Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who rejected his painting of The Martyrdom of Saint Maurice. He settled in Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death. He received several major commissions from the church and the nobility, and produced his best-known paintings, such as The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, View of Toledo, The Opening of the Fifth Seal, and The Disrobing of Christ. El Greco's style was characterized by elongated figures, distorted proportions, vivid colors, and dynamic compositions. He often used religious themes and combined Byzantine and Western elements. He also worked as a sculptor and an architect, designing complete altar compositions. He was highly esteemed as an artist in his lifetime, but his works were mostly confined to Toledo and were forgotten after his death. El Greco's art was rediscovered in the 19th century by Romantic critics and painters who admired his originality and expressiveness. He was regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism, while his personality and works were a source of inspiration for poets and writers such as Rainer Maria Rilke and Nikos Kazantzakis. El Greco is now considered one of the greatest artists of all time and a master of Spanish painting.

  • 7. Nikos Kazantzakis

    Died: 1957 A.D
    Slogan: I hope for nothing. I fear nothing. I am free

    Nikos Kazantzakis was a Greek writer, journalist, politician, poet and philosopher. Widely considered a giant of modern Greek literature, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in nine different years, and remains the most translated Greek author worldwide. His novels included Zorba the Greek (published in 1946 as Life and Times of Alexis Zorbas), Christ Recrucified (1948), Captain Michalis (1950, translated Freedom or Death), and The Last Temptation of Christ (1955). He also wrote plays, travel books, memoirs, and philosophical essays, such as The Saviors of God: Spiritual Exercises. His fame spread in the English-speaking world due to cinematic adaptations of Zorba the Greek (1964) and The Last Temptation of Christ (1988). He also translated a number of notable works into Modern Greek, such as the Divine Comedy, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, On the Origin of Species, and Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Kazantzakis was born in 1883 in Heraklion, Crete, which was then under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. He studied law at the University of Athens and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris. He was influenced by the works of Friedrich Nietzsche and Henri Bergson. He travelled extensively in Europe, Asia, and Africa, where he encountered different cultures and religions. He participated in the Greek political life as a member of the Liberal Party and a minister without portfolio. He also fought in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 and witnessed the Asia Minor Catastrophe. Kazantzakis developed his own philosophical system, which he called the "Cretan Glance". He believed that human life is a constant struggle between the material and the spiritual, the finite and the infinite. He saw God as an inner force that drives humans to transcend their limitations and create their own destiny. He rejected dogmatic religions and advocated for a personal relationship with God. He also embraced the values of freedom, courage, and passion. Kazantzakis died of leukemia on October 26th, 1957 in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. He was buried in Martinengo Bastion on the Venetian Walls of Heraklion, Crete. His grave bears the epitaph: "I hope for nothing. I fear nothing. I am free." His works have been translated into more than 50 languages and have inspired generations of readers and writers around the world.

  • 8. Pericles

    Died: -429 A.D
    Slogan: Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't mean politics take an interest in you

    Pericles was a Greek statesman, orator, general, and patron of the arts who led Athens in the 5th century BCE, a period known as the Golden Age or the Age of Pericles. He came from a wealthy and influential family of aristocrats and promoted democracy, culture, and empire in Athens. He initiated the construction of the Acropolis and the Parthenon, two iconic monuments of ancient Greece. He also fought in several wars, such as the Persian War, the Delian League, the Samian War, and the Peloponnesian War, which eventually led to his death from the plague in 429 BCE. His life and legacy were recorded by historians like Thucydides and Plutarch, who admired and criticized him in different ways. Pericles was born around 495 BCE in Athens, Greece. His father was Xanthippus, a politician and general who had fought against the Persians at the Battle of Mycale. His mother was Agariste, a member of the powerful and controversial Alcmaeonid family, which had a history of involvement in tyranny and reform. Pericles was educated by some of the best teachers of his time, such as Anaxagoras, Zeno, and Protagoras. He also learned music and poetry from Damon and Pythocleides. He was influenced by the philosophy of Ionian rationalism and the art of Ionic architecture. ⁴ Pericles began his political career in the 460s BCE, when he became a leader of the democratic faction in Athens. He opposed the conservative aristocrats led by Cimon, who favored a friendly alliance with Sparta and a moderate expansion of Athenian power. Pericles advocated for a more radical democracy, a stronger naval empire, and a cultural revolution. He was elected strategos (general) for the first time in 461 BCE and held this office almost continuously until his death. He also dominated the popular assembly (ekklesia) with his eloquence and charisma. He introduced reforms that increased the participation and representation of the common people in the government, such as paying salaries to public officials, jurors, and soldiers; creating new courts and magistrates; expanding citizenship rights; and supporting colonization and immigration. ⁴ Pericles also transformed Athens into a cultural center of Greece. He sponsored public works that beautified and fortified the city, such as building walls, temples, theaters, statues, and fountains. His most famous project was the construction of the Acropolis, which included the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens. The Acropolis was designed by architects like Ictinus and Callicrates and decorated by sculptors like Phidias and painters like Polygnotus. It was a symbol of Athenian pride, piety, and power. Pericles also fostered the development of literature, philosophy, drama, music, and art in Athens. He patronized writers like Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Herodotus, Thucydides, and Plato; philosophers like Anaxagoras, Socrates, Protagoras, and Zeno; musicians like Damon and Pythocleides; artists like Phidias, Polygnotus,and Zeuxis;and many others.He encouraged free speech,critical thinking,and artistic expression.He also organized festivals and competitions that showcased Athenian culture,such as the Panathenaia,the Dionysia,and the Olympic Games.⁴ Pericles also led Athens in several wars that shaped the history of Greece. He fought against the Persians in the second Persian War (480-479 BCE) and helped form the Delian League, an alliance of Greek city-states that aimed to liberate the Aegean islands and Asia Minor from Persian rule. He also fought against the Spartans and their allies in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE), a conflict that arose from the rivalry between Athens and Sparta, the two most powerful states in Greece. Pericles pursued a defensive strategy, relying on the superior Athenian navy and the protection of the Long Walls that connected Athens to its port of Piraeus. He also tried to maintain the loyalty and tribute of the Athenian allies, who resented the imperialistic policies of Athens. He faced several challenges and setbacks, such as the revolt of Samos (440-439 BCE), the outbreak of the plague (430-427 BCE), which killed a third of the Athenian population, including Pericles himself, and the defection of several allies, such as Megara, Lesbos, and Boeotia. ⁴ Pericles died in 429 BCE, after suffering from a fever for several weeks. He was mourned by his friends, family, and admirers, who considered him the greatest leader of Athens. He was survived by his partner Aspasia, a Milesian courtesan who was his companion and adviser for many years, and his two sons, Paralus and Xanthippus, who also died from the plague. He was buried in a public tomb in the Kerameikos Cemetery, where he had delivered his famous funeral oration in honor of the fallen Athenians in 431 BCE. In his speech, he praised the virtues of democracy, freedom, justice, courage, and glory that defined Athenian identity and culture. He also urged his fellow citizens to continue the war against Sparta and to preserve their way of life. ⁴ Pericles was one of the most influential figures in ancient history. He shaped the political and cultural landscape of Athens and Greece for generations to come. He was admired by many as a visionary leader, a brilliant orator, a wise statesman, a generous patron, and a noble warrior. He was also criticized by some as a demagogue, a tyrant, a warmonger, a corrupt politician, and a decadent aristocrat. His legacy is still debated and celebrated today by historians, philosophers, artists, and politicians. He is regarded as one of the founders of Western civilization and one of the champions of democracy and humanism. ⁴

  • 9. Alexander the Great

    Died: -323 A.D
    Slogan: There is nothing impossible to him who will try.

    Alexander the Great was one of the most influential and successful military leaders in history. He was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia, in 356 BC. He was the son of King Philip II and Queen Olympias, who claimed descent from the legendary hero Heracles. Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until he was 16 years old. He then became a soldier and a commander under his father, who united most of the Greek city-states under his rule. Alexander inherited his father's kingdom and his title as Hegemon of the Hellenic League in 336 BC, after Philip was assassinated by one of his bodyguards. Alexander then set out to conquer the Persian Empire, which was the largest and most powerful empire in the world at that time. He defeated the Persian king Darius III in several battles, such as the Battle of Issus in 333 BC and the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. He also captured many cities and regions, such as Tyre, Egypt, Babylon, Susa, Persepolis, and Bactria. He founded many new cities along his route of conquest, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, which became a center of culture and learning for centuries. He also adopted some aspects of Persian culture and religion, and married three Persian princesses: Roxana, Stateira, and Parysatis. He also encouraged his soldiers and officers to marry local women and to respect the customs and beliefs of the people they conquered. Alexander's ambition was to reach the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea. He invaded India in 326 BC and defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes River. However, his army was exhausted and mutinied at the Hyphasis River, refusing to go any further. Alexander reluctantly agreed to turn back and marched his army through the Gedrosian Desert, where many soldiers died from thirst and hunger. He reached Babylon in 324 BC and planned to launch a new campaign to Arabia. However, he fell ill with a fever and died on June 10, 323 BC at the age of 32. His body was placed in a gold sarcophagus and transported to Memphis in Egypt by one of his generals, Ptolemy I Soter. Later, it was moved to Alexandria and placed in a mausoleum known as the Soma. Alexander's empire did not survive his death intact. His generals fought among themselves for control of his territories and divided them into several kingdoms known as the Hellenistic states. These states preserved some aspects of Greek culture and language but also developed their own distinctive features. Alexander's legacy is immense and lasting. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest military geniuses of all time. He influenced many leaders and conquerors who admired him, such as Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Adolf Hitler. He also spread Hellenism throughout Asia and Africa, creating a new cultural synthesis that enriched both East and West. He is revered by many people as a hero and a legend.

  • 10. Mid'hat Frasheri

    Died: 1949 A.D
    Slogan: The Albanian nation is one and indivisible.

    Mid'hat Frashëri was an Albanian diplomat, writer and politician. He was the son of Abdyl Frashëri, one of the most important activists of the Albanian National Awakening, and the nephew of the poets and nationalists Naim Frashëri and Sami Frashëri. He was born in Ioannina, then part of the Ottoman Empire, in 1880 and was raised in Istanbul, where his family worked in the Ottoman administration and organised the Albanian nationalist movement. He published a yearly almanac called Kalendari Kombiar (National Calendar) and a weekly newspaper called Lirija (Freedom) under the pen name Lumo Skendo. He advocated for national unity, development of Albanian education, schools and literature, and opposed foreign power intervention in Albanian affairs. He also called for government reforms and an alliance with Macedonians to achieve those aims, but he was against armed resistance. He participated in the Congress of Monastir in 1908, where he contributed to the standardisation of the Albanian alphabet. After the declaration of Albanian independence in 1912, he served as a minister, a diplomat and a representative of the Albanian state in various international conferences. He was also involved in the formation of the Albanian Literary Commission in 1916. During the Second World War, he became the president of Balli Kombëtar (National Front), an Albanian fascist and collaborationist movement that resisted the Italian and German occupation, as well as the communist-led National Liberation Movement. He also founded the Committee for Free Albania in 1943, which aimed to secure the recognition and support of the Western Allies for the Albanian cause. He died of a heart attack in New York in 1949, where he was buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery. He is regarded as one of the fathers of modern Albanian nationalism.

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